Diabetes Drugs

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Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

This drug is used for manage type 2 diabetes mellitus with diet and exercise.

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

It slows inactivation of inretin hormones (incretin normally released by the intestines in response to meals and cause synthesis of insulin and insulin's release from the beta cells) thereby increasing and prolonging the action of incretin DDP-4 normally inactivates incretin.

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

There is increased insulin release and decreased glucagon level (decreasing the release of glucose from the liver)

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

Helps lower blood sugar after meals and between meals. It improved the levels of insulin produced by the body after meals. It decreases the amount of glucose made by the body.

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

This drug should NOT be used with type I diabetes and ketoacidosis, women who are breast feeding.

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

The side effects for this drug include upper respiratory infections, stuffy runny nose, headaches, nasopharyngitis, stomachache, diarrhea.

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

This drug can be used as a monotherapy or with metformin or with glitazones (thiazolidinediones) Dosage adjustments are recommended in patients with moderate to severe renal insufficient or ESRD.

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

Hypoglycemia does not occur because it does not work when the blood sugar is low. It has not been studies in children under 18 years of age. What drug is this?

Januvia (sitagliptin phosphate)

This drug should be taken by mouth and if a dose is missed take as soon as remembered but, do NOT take a double dose!

Symlin (pramlintide)

This drug is for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. It should be used in addition to insulin therapy in patients who cannot achieve adequate control of blood sugars with intensive insulin therapy alone.

Symlin (pramlintide)

This drug acts like the natural hormone amylin. Amylin is a protein stored with and secreted with insulin in response to food intake.

Symlin (pramlintide)

Which drug helps to slows gastric emptying, suppresses glucagons secretion, reduces hepatic release of glucose, helps control appetite and satiety.

Symlin (pramlintide)

This drug should not be taken with known allegories, impaired GI motility, those with hypoglycemia or HbA1c>9% and those who are noncompliant with insulin therapy or glucose therapy or glucose monitoring.

Symlin (pramlintide)

This drug should not be used in patients who cannot tell when their blood sugar is low, have gastroparesis or are allergic to pramlintide acetate, acetic acid, or sodium acetate.

Symlin (pramlintide)

The side effects of this drug include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and abdominal pain.

Symlin (pramlintide)

The nursing care for this drug involves monitoring blood sugars closely especially those taking insulin. Insulin doses often need to be reduced. It can be mixed with any insulin product. Be sure to give it prior to meals. Given subQ only.

Byetta (exenatide)

This drug from Incretin Mimetics category is used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is used in combination with other oral hypoglycemic agents.

Byetta (exenatide)

After meals, it signals the pancreas to make the right amount of insulin at the right time to help lower the blood sugar. When blood sugars get close to normal, it stops signaling the pancreas to produce insulin. It helps stop the liver from releasing to much glycogen. It helps slow down the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream and avoid sugar spikes. What drug is this?

Byetta (exenatide)

This drug should NOT be used for type 1 diabetes mellitus. It has not been studied in children.

Byetta (exenatide)

If a patient has pancreatitis discontinue the medication immediately.

Byetta (exenatide)

The side effects for this drug include hypoglycemia which may occur with sulfonylureas. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, feeling jittery, and acid stomach, weight loss.

Byetta (exenatide)

Nausea if common when first starting the med but it decreases with time. Take twice a day, before morning and evening meals. Check blood sugars 2 hurs following meals. Eat meals at the same time each day. Try to be consistent with meals. If snacking is done make sure it is done at the same time each day. Before using inform the physician of any stomach or food digestion problems, or kidney disease. What drug is this?

Byetta (exenatide)

If a patient develops signs of Pancreatitis (severe abdominal pain, with or without nausea, vomiting) and Pancreatitis is confirmed discontinue use of ________, it may lead to hemorrhagic or necrotizing Pancreatitis and death. What drug is this?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What Meglinitidie drugs are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What drug stimulated the release of insulin from the beta cells?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What drug is metabolized in the GI tract and excreted in the feces?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What meglinitide drug is contraindicated with type 1 diabetes mellitus?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What drug has side effects that include hypoglycemia, headache, dizziness, weight gain, joint pain, upper respiratory infection?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What drug has the same side effects as sulfonylureas?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What drug can be used alone with diet and exercise or in combination with metformin?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What drug can you skip a dose if a meal is missed, or add a dose when a meal is added?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What drug should be taken 15-30 minutes prior to meals?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What drug has hypoglycemic affects which increase with use of NSAIDS, antifungals, sulfonamides, Phenobarbital, phenytoin, thiazides decrease hypoglycemic affects?

Prandin (repaglinide) & Starix (nateglinide)

What are examples of meglitinide drugs?

Prandin (repaglinide)

The onset for the drug is 15-60 minutes, peak is 60-90 minutes, and duration is 2 hours.

Starix (nateglinide)

The duration for this drug is only 4 hours long

Actos (pioglitazone HCL) & Avandia (maleate)

What glitazones (Thiazolidinediones) treat type 2 diabetes?

Actos (pioglitazone HCL) & Avandia (maleate)

What drug enchances insulin action at the receptor sites without increasing insulin secretion from the beta cells - htis increase glucose uptake by peripheral tissues.

Actos (pioglitazone HCL) & Avandia (maleate)

What drugs inhibit hepatic gluconeogensis?

Actos (pioglitazone HCL) & Avandia (maleate)

What drugs should not be used when you have liver disease or elevated liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase ALT), pregnancy, and heart failure?

Actos (pioglitazone HCL) & Avandia (maleate)

What drugs have the side effects of headache, edema, weight gain, anemia, upper respiratory infections, pharyngitis, sinusitis?

Actos (pioglitazone HCL) & Avandia (maleate)

It may be used by itself with diet and exercise or combination with insulin or sulfonylureas or metformin (Glucophage).

Actos (pioglitazone HCL) & Avandia (maleate)

What drugs must you monitor liver enzymes periodically?

Glucophage (metformin)

What is a biguanide drug treats type 2 diabetes?

Glucophage (metformin)

What drug decreases intestinal absorption of glucose.

Glucophage (metformin)

What drug helps insulin action on peripheral receptor sites, stimulating insulin uptake by muscles and fat cells.

Glucophage (metformin)

What drug decreases hepatic production of glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol?

Glucophage (metformin)

What drug is not metabolized in the liver and is excreted in the urine unchanged?

Glucophage (metformin)

This drug should not be used with hepatic or renal impairment, cardiac or respiratory insufficiency, hypoxia, or persons with a history of lactic acidosis.

Glucophage (metformin)

What drug needs to be cautiosusly in elderly who are at risk for lactic acidosis (give smalled doses)

Glucophage (metformin)

This drug has a "drug-drug" interaction with anticoagulants, corticosterioids, diuretics, and oral contraception, nifedipine, digoxin, cimetidine.

Glucophage (metformin)

The side effects include abdominal bloating, diarrhea, nausea, and vomitting, anorexia, absorption of folate and vitamin b12. Metallic taste, allergic skin reactions-eczema, pruritis, erythema, urticaria, lactic acidosis.

Glucophage (metformin)

With alcohol, this drug increases the risk of hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis. What drug is this?

Glucophage (metformin)

cimetidine (Tagmet) and furosemide (Lasix) increase the blood levels of this drug?

Glucophage (metformin)

This drug may be given alone or in combination with sulfonylureas or repaglinide or insulin. It does not cause hypoglycemia.

Glucophage (metformin)

This drug does not cause hypoglycemia. What drug is it?

Glucophage (metformin)

Renal function should be assessed before starting the drug and annually during its use. What drug is this?

Glucophage (metformin)

This drug should be discontinued use 48hrs prior to using contrast media containing iodine, and should not be resumed for at least 48 hours after the tests are done. (causes renal failure if it is not discontinued)

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is used for type 2 diabetes?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drugs inhibit the enzyme Alpha-glucosidase? This enzyme is found in the border (villi) of the small intestine. This enzyme is responible for hydrolysis of oligosaccharides and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides.

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drug delays intestinal breakdown of carbohydrates thus delaying carbohydrate absorption causing a smaller increase in blood glucose levels after a meal?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drug is metabolized in the GI tract by digestive enzymes and intestinal bacteria and excreted in urine?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drug should not be used with diabetic ketoacidosis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, intestinal obstruction, and hepatic cirrhosis?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drug has side effects such as diarrhea, flatulence, GI upset, bloating, and abdominal pain, diarrhea?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drug at higher doses may causes elevated hepatic enzymes?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drug can be taken alone or in combination with insulin or other hypoglycemic agents?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drug should be given with the first bite of food?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drug starts with low doses and increased gradually to decrease GI upset (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea). The plasma concentration levels are increased in the presence of renal insufficiency?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drugs do not cause hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, or weight gain?

Precose (acarbose) & Glyset (miglitol)

What drugs interact with intestinal absorbents (charcoal) and digestive enzyme preparation containing CHO splitting enzymes (amylase pancreatin). These drugs may reduce the effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor?

Glyset (miglitol)

The onset is 1-1.5hrs, the peak is 14-24hrs, and the duration is 9-15hrs.

Micronase, Diabeta, Glynase (glyburide), glucatrol (glipizide), Amaryl (glimepride)

What are second general sulfonylureas type 2 diabetes mellitus drugs?

Second General Sulfonylureas

These drugs increase the production of insulin by stimualting the release of insulin from the beta cells of the pancreas. Increase peripheral use and uptake of glucose in the muscles, adipose tissue, and in the liver. It helps slow or decrease the conversion of glycogen into glucose by the liver. It increase the insulin receptors sensitvity.

Second General Sulfonylureas

What drug increases the insulin receptors sensitivity and is excreted in both the urine and bile?

Second General Sulfonylureas

The side effects for these drugs include hypoglycemia, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia, thrombcytopenia, jaundice, nausea, heartburn, feeling of fullness, erythema and photosensitivity?

Second General Sulfonylureas

What drug has hypoglycemic effects that increase when taken with alcohol, anabolic steroids, B-blocks, MAOIs, oral anticogulants, or sulfonamide?

Glipizide

What drug is less toxic than most first generation sylfonylureas yet more potent. It may cause mild diuretic effect.

Glipizide

What drug because of food delays it must be taken in 30 minutes prior to meals? No hyponatremia with this drug.

Glimepride

What drug is the only sulfonylurea that has been approved to be given with insulin?

Glyburide

The onset of action is slow and the duration of action is long.

Glipizide

The onset of action is fast and the duration of action is long.

Glimepride

The onset of action is intermediate and the duration of action is long.

(lispro insulin) Humalog (aspart insulin) Novolog

Rapid acting analog insulin Onset 5-15mins Peak 1-2hrs Duration 4-6hrs

regular insulin-NovolinR,HumulinR

Short acting insulin Onset 1/2-1 hr Peak 2-4hrs Duration 6-10hrs

regular insulin-Intravenous

Short acting insulin Onset 10-30 mins Peak 15-30mins Duration up to 60mins

HumulinN, NovolinN, HumulinL, NovolinL

Intermediate acting insulin Onset 1-1 1/2 hrs Peak 8-12hrs Duration 18-24hrs

(extended insulin zinc suspension) HumulinU & Ultralente

Long acting insulin Onset 2-4hrs Peak 8-14hrs Duration 18-24hrs

insulin glargine-Lantus

Long acting insulin Onset 1-2hrs Peak none Duration 24hrs

Humulin 70/30,Novolin 70/30

Insulin mixture-NPH 70% & regular 30%

Humulin 50/50

Insulin mixture-NPH 50% & regular 50%

Humalog Mix 75/25

Insulin mixture-lispro protamine suspension 75% & lispro insulin 25%

Humulin R, Novolin R, Veloculin BR

What is the only insulin that can be given intravenously.

Glargine (Lantus)

What drug can not be mixed with any other insulin?

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