Ways of the World Chapter 19 Vocabulary

21 terms by bobbyhix 

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Abd al-Hamid II

Ottoman Sultan who accepted a reform constitution, but then quickly suppressed it, ruling as a reactionary autocrat for the rest of his long rein.

Boxer Rebellion

A 1900 Uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.

China, 1911

The collapse of China's imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of the troubles that had overwhelmed the government for the previous half-century.

Daimyo

Feudal lords of Japan who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and only lost their social preeminence in the Meiji restoration

Hong Xiuquan

Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachers of Chinese elite

Informal Empire

Term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the 19th century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence, e.g., Latin America and China.

Meiji Restoration

The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.

Matthew Perry

A commodore in the American navy. He forced Japan into opening its doors to trade, thus brining western influence to Japan while showing American might. influenced by the idea of manifest destiny

Opium Wars

Two Wars fought between the Chinese and the British in which China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods. Especially Opium. China had lost both wars and would have to make major concessions.

Russo-Japanese War, 1904- 1905

Ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia and precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905.

Samurai

armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty; in the Tokugawa shogunate, the samurai gradually became and administrative elite, but they did not lost their special privileges until the Meiji Restoration

Self-strengthening Movement

China's program of internal reform (effort to handle the effects of imperialism) in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West (military, factories). It failed, leading to the Boxer Rebellion and the end of the Qing Dynasty.

Selim III

Sultan who ruled Ottoman Empire from 1789 to 1807; aimed at improving administrative efficiency and building a new army and navy; toppled by Janissaries in 1807

"Sick Man of Europe"

The phrase is used to describe economic poverty in a European country. This term was coined when the Ottoman empire was in decline and increasingly began to lose territory to the Europeans through defeats in battle.

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

Taiping Uprising

massive chinese rebellion that devested much of the country between 1850 and 1864. Base on millennium teachings of Hong Xiquan

Tanzimat Reforms

Important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term "Tanzimat" means "reorganization"

Tokugawa Shogunate

Japanese rulers from 1600 to 1868

Unequal Treaties

treaties between China and the Western powers after the Opium War that vastly favored the Western powers

Young Ottomans

Group of would-be reformers in the mid-19th century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of Westernizing reforms to the political system.

Young Turks

Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sultan to reform

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