AP LIT MIDTERM

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Persona

The narrarator or storyteller of a literary work that is created by the author.

Dramatic Irony

Occurs when facts are not known to the characters in a work of literature, but are known by the audience.

Apostrophe

Someone absent, dead, or nonhuman is addressed by the character as if this item were alive, present, and able to respond.

Connotation

an association that comes along with a particular word. Relates to the ideas or qualities that are implied by that word.

Irony

How a person, situation, statement, or circumstance is not as it would actually seem

Overstatement

An exaggeration (not hyperbole) in which something is stated strongly

Enjambment

A run-on line of poetry in which logical and gramatical sense is preserved through the next line

Anapestic

Two unaccented syllables, followed by an accented one.
Example: com-pre-HEND

End-Stopped

A run on line of poetry in which logical and grammatical sense is completed within the line.

Meter

The measured pattern of rhythmic accents in a poem

Rhythm

The recurrence of accent or stresses in lines of verse.

Syntax

The grammatical order of words in a work.

Diction

The selection of words in a literary work.

Audience

the person(s) reading a text, listening to a speaker, or observing a performance

Theme

The idea of a literary work abstracted from its details of language, character, and action.

Imagery

The pattern of related comparative aspects of language, particularly of images, in a literary work.

Oxymoron

using contradiction in a manner that oddly makes sense on a deeper level

Paradox

contradiction. usually refers to an idea or concept.

Alliteration

The repetition of consonant sounds, especially at the beginning of words.

Simile

a comparison using like or as

Anthropomorphism

the attribution of human form or behavior to a deity, animal, etc

Metaphor

something used, or regarded as being used, to represent something else

Personification

attribution of human nature or character to animals, inanimate objects, or abstract notions, especially as a rhetorical figure

Litotes

double negative

Symbol

something used for or regarded as representing something else; a material object representing something, often something immaterial

Hyperbole

an exaggeration

Situational Irony

irony involving a situation in which actions have an effect that is opposite from what was intended, so that the outcome is contrary to what was expected

Satire

the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.

Existentialism

stresses the individual's unique position as a self-determining agent responsible for the authenticity of his or her choices

The absurd

a situation in which life seems irrational and meaningless

Archetype

original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based; prototype

Allegory

literary work in which characters, objects, or actions represent abstractions

Allusion

biblical reference

Speaker

a person who speaks formally before an audience; orator

Onomatopoeia

The use of words to imitate the sounds they describe.

Assonance

The repetition of similar vowel sounds in a sentence

Metonymy

A figure of speech in which a closely related term is substituted for an object or idea.

Personification

The endowment of inanimate objects or abstract concepts with animate or living qualities.

Refrain

group of words formin a phrase or sentence and consisting of one or more lines repeated at intervals in a poem, usually at the end of a stanza

Euphemism

substitution of a mild, indirect or vague expressions for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt

English Sonnet

shakespearean sonnet

Italian Sonet

sonnet consisting of an octave with the rhyme pattern abbaabba, followed by a sestet with the rhyme pattern cdecde or cdcdcd

Haiku

5 syllables
7 syllables
5 syllables

Stanza

an arrangement of a certain number of lines, usually four or more, sometimes having a fixed length, meter, or rhyme scheme, forming a division of a poem

Limerick

a kind of humorous verse of five lines, in which the first, second, and fifth lines rhyme with each other, and the third and fourth lines, which are shorter, form a rhymed couplet

Tone

The implied attitude of a writer toward the subject and characters of a work

Synecdoche

A figure of speech in which a part is substituted for the whole.

Juxtaposition

an act or instance of placing close together or side by side, especially, for comparison or contrast

Euphemism

substitution of a mild, indirect or vague expressions for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt

Colloquialism

common words

Epiphany

a literary work or section of a work presenting, usually symbolically, such a moment of revelation and insight

Conceit

a fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor

Invective Speech

speech or writing that attacks, insults, or denounces a person, topic, or institution, usually involving negative emotional language

Anaphora

the use of a word as a regular grammatical substitute for a preceding word or group of words, as the use of it and fo in I know it and he does to.

Non Sequitur

an inference that does not logically follow from the premises

Pathos

quality or power in an actual life experience or in literature, music, speech, or other forms of expression, of evoking a feeling of pity or compassion

Ad Hominem

an argument attacking an individual's character rather than his/her position on an issue

Chiasmus

reversal in the order of words in two otherwise parallel phrase

Ballad

A narrative poem (four lines) and is characterized by swift action in a direct style.

Syllogism

Deductive reasoning

Antithesis

contrasting words or ideas in parallel structure

Syllepsis

When a single word modifies two or more words and has a different meaning for each

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