A knight who owed service to his lord, after having sworn homage and fealty to him-in return for which the lord gave the vassal a fief.
The owner of a manor house.
A male holding the highest hereditary title. A male ruler of a small independent state.
A comprehensive record of the extent, value, ownership, and liabilities of land in England, made in 1086 by the order of William I.
religious ministers, such as deacons and priests, who do not belong to a religious order. Considered to be religious figures who "live in the world".
The ceremony of crowning a sovereign or a sovereign's consort.
A unit of land consisting of a lord's demesne (domain) and lands rented to tenants.
A gift to a vassal in return for his service to his lord. Most commonly, the fief was land and the service was military.
An ecclesiastical assembly. Consist only of clerical leaders from one particular area.
The purchase and or sale of ecclesiastical office.
Secular control of ecclesiastical appointments.
a compilation of 27 axiomatic (self-evident or unquestionable) statements of powers arrogated (claimed without justification) to the Pope, that was included in Pope Gregory VII's register under the year 1075.
A free-born peasant who owed a degree of service to a manorial lord, but who possessed greater rights than a bound peasant.
The laws by which the institution of the church operates. These laws accumulated haphazardly over the centuries; the first efforts to systematize them began in the 9th century.
The Christian ceremony commemorating the Last Supper, in which bread and wine are consecrated and consumed.
A christian sacrament in which a member of the Church confesses sins to a priest and is given absolution (formal release from guilt).
A brotherhood with a charitable or religious purpose.
Carolingian, King of the Franks, r. 768-814, emp. 800-814.
Alfred the Great
Anglo-Saxon, King of Wessex, r. 871-899.
William the Conqueror (William I)
Norman, King of England, r. 1066-1087.
Duke of Normandy, r. 911-927.
Post-Carolingian historian, b. 985 d. 1047
Henry the Fowler (Henry I)
Ottonian, King of the Germans, r. 912-936.
Duke William the Pious of Acquitaine
House of Auvergne, Duke of Acquitaine, r. 893-918. Associated with the abbey of Cluny's guarantee of freedom.
Pope, r. 1073-1085. Penned the declaration called the "Dictatus Papae"
Ottonian, King of the Germans, r. 1039-1056.
Ottonian, King of the Germans, r. 1056-1106.
Leader of the Normans in southern Italy in the 11th Century.
Louis the Pious
Carolingian, King of the Franks, son of Charlemagne, r. 814-840.
Wife of Otto III.
Pope, r. 1049-1054. Known also as the "first reformed pope", and was appointed by Henry III of Germany.
A people who originated in the Urals and migrated westward to settle in what is now Hungary in the 9th c. AD.
A nomad of the Syrian and Arabian desert at the time of the Roman Empire.
A member of a Germanic people that inhabited parts of central and northern Germany from Roman Times, many of whom conquered and settled in Southern England in the 5th and 6th centuries.
member of a Germanic people that conquered Gaul (present day France) in the 6th century.
A member of a Germanic people that inhabited part of southern Germany.
A native or national of Denmark, or a person of Danish descent.
The kingdom of the West Saxons, established in Hampshire in the early 6th century and gradually extended by conquest to include much of southern England.
A county on the eastern coast of England, east of an inlet of the North Sea called the Wash.
A city in west Germany, made the capital of the Carolingian empire the Charlemagne in the 9th century.
A member of a people of mixed Frankish and Scandinavian origin who settled in the 10th century and who conquered England in 1066.
A village in north central Italy. In January 1077, it was the scene of penance done by Emperor Henry IV to obtain from Pope Gregory VII the withdrawal of the excommunication against him.
A collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
Battle of Lechfeld
AD 955, Saxon Duke Otto the Great defeated the Magyar army, effectively ending their threat to Europe.
College of Cardinals
Created by Leo IX, between 1049-1054, this was a body of advisers to the papacy. The figures that made up this body are handpicked by the pope. They addressed doctrinal issues within the Church.
Papal Election Decree
Decree which asserted that the only way for any individual to become the legitimate pontiff of the Holy Catholic Church was to be freely elected to the position by the College of the Cardinals.
A German poem about the romances of knightly adventure. Is significant because it provides a picture of feudal life and manners.
Foundation Charter of Cluny
A guarantee of freedom written by William IX of Aquitaine to the abbey of Cluny in 910.
Rule of St. Benedict
The monastic Rule drawn up by St Benedict of Nursia c.540 for his monks, mostly laymen, at Monte Cassino. Drawing freely on earlier Rules, Benedict created a taut, inclusive, and individual directory of the spiritual as well as of the administrative life of a monastery.
Peace of God
The popular protests of the mid-tenth to eleventh centuries that triggered the Church Reform. Specifically, the term refers to the prohibitions of violence against clerics, women, and pilgrims bestowed by the bishops who took over leadership of the reform movement.
Translates as "transfer of the empire""
Synod of Sutri
A council of clergy summoned by Henry III in 1046 to depose Benedict IX and Gregory VI.
Battle of Hastings
Battle between Duke William of Normandy and Harold Godwinson in 1066. Resulted in William being crowed king on Christmas day of the same year.
Song of Roland
A French knightly epic, written in the 12th century AD, depicting the heroic exploits of a Carolingian nobleman named Roland. Illustrated the difference between northern Christian and Iberian Christian attitudes towards the Muslims.
A senior member of the Christian clergy, typically in charge of diocese and empowered to confer holy orders.
A personal representative of the Pope to Foreign nations, or to some part of the Catholic Church.
Donation of Constantine
A forged Roman imperial decree, written in the mid to late 700s, by which the emperor Constantine I supposedly transferred authority over Rome and the western part of the Roman Empire to the pope.