Roosevelt assembled a group known as the ------ made up of economists, college professors, business leaders and some politicians whose job it was to come up with creative approaches to solving the problems of the Great Depression.
Emergency Banking Act (EBA)
To restore confidence in America's banks the ------- closed every bank in America while inspectors checked their books. If they were determined to be a "sound" bank they were permitted to reopen. Through his "fireside chat", FDR encouraged the American public not to "hoard" their money but to put it back into a safe bank. When the banks reopened deposits outnumbered withdrawals
Glass-Steagall Act , Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
To further restore confidence the ---------was passed which created the --------------- to guarantee bank deposits (against bank failure) up to $2500 (today it's $100,000)
Securities Act (SA)
To prevent the kind of insider abuses which had dominated Wall Street in the 1920s, the Securities Act (SA) was passed.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
In 1934 the --------------- was created to regulate the Stock Market
Home Owners Loan Act (HOLA) +Emergency Farm Mortgage Act (EFMA)
enabled millions to refinance their home and farm mortgages.
Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)
furnished funds to state and local agencies.
Under the leadership of Harry Hopkins by 1935 spent over $3 Billion before the it was replaced by work relief programs
Civil Works Administration (CWA)
hired laborers to build roads, teachers to staff rural schools and musicians, actors & singers to give public performances
The Public Works Administration (PWA)
provided work relief and stimulated the economy by building schools, hospitals, courthouses, airports, dams and bridges.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
One of FDR's personal ideas,-------employed 2.5 million young men to work on reforestation and flood control projects, build roads and bridges in national forests and parks restore Civil War battlefields and fight forest fires
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
A farm relief program, the ----------------- subsidized farmers who agreed to restrict production. Despite objections, the --- paid southern farmers to plow up 10 million acres of cotton and midwestern farmers to bury 9 million pounds of pork
The National Industrial Recovery Act created the National Recovery Administration (NRA)
The---- created the ---which sought to halt the slide in prices, wages and employment by suspending antitrust laws and authorizing industrial and trade associations to draft codes setting production quotas, price policies , wage and working conditions and other business practices. Although the codes promoted the interests of business generally and big business in particular, Section 7a of the ---- guaranteed workers the right to organize unions and bargain collectively
When the NIRA was found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court workers found government support for the right to collectively bargain in the Wagner National Labor Relations Act which guaranteed workers' rights to organize unions and forbade employers to adopt unfair labor practices. It also set up the National Labor Relations Board to enforce these provisions, protect workers from coercion, and supervise union elections.
Tennessee Valley Authority Act created the Tennesse Valley Authority (TVA)
---- created the ---which built dams to control floods and generate hydroelectric power, produced fertilizer, fostered agricultural and forestry development, encouraged conservation, improved navigation and modernized school and health systems across seven states. This provided electricity to a vast area of the South for the first time.
Indian Reorganization Act
------was aimed at decreasing federal control of American Indian affairs and increasing Indian self-government and responsibility.
The Revenue Act of 1935
provided for graduated income taxes and increased estate and corporate taxes. Opponents called it the "Soak the Rich Tax" but with its many loopholes it was scarcely that. It did have popular support.
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
---------gave jobs to 9 million people and spent nearly $12 Billion. 3/4 of its expenditures went on construction projects that could employ manual labor but the --- also developed work projects for unemployed writers, artists, musicians and actors.
The National Youth Administration (NYA),
--- a WPA agency, gave part-time jobs to students enabling 2 million high school and college students to stay in school, learn skills and do productive work.
of N. Dakota who felt the AAA wasn't enough and wanted direct relief for farmers and favored inflationary policies (a traditional rural demand).
Dr. Francis Townsend
California physician called for a government pension for the elderly.
Huey P. Long
The Senator from Louisiana,was considered by FDR to be the biggest threat to his New Deal as Long's "Every Man A King" program was so popular that Long was looked at as a possible Democratic presidential candidate until his assassination.
Father Charles Coughlin,
In detroit a Catholic priest threatened to mobilize a large constituency of the listeners of his radio show (which was often tinged with anti-semitism) to protest the limitations of the New Deal.
Social Security Act
--- provided unemployment compensation, old-age pensions and aid for dependent mothers and children and the blind. It did, however, exclude almost 1/4 of all workers including farm laborers and domestic servants.
Banking Act, Federal Reserve Board
increased the authority of the ---------over the nation's currency and credit system and decreased the power of private bankers whose irresponsible behavior had contributed to the depression.
Rural Electrification Administration
-------was designed to help provide electric power to rural areas
The Farm Security Administration
is created to lend money to small farmers to buy and rehabilitate farms
The National Housing Act
is passed to promote public housing projects
The Fair Labor Standards Act
establishes minimum wage and maximum hours rules for labor