Chapter 17-Blood

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formed elements

The cellular elements of blood; erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. (plural)

plasma

colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended (singular)

erythrocytes

Red blood cells that transport oxygen (plural)

buffy coat

a thin light colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells (singular)

leukocytes

White blood cells (plural)

platelets

tiny, disk-shaped bodies in the blood, important in blood clot formation (plural)

55

% of blood that is plasma

1

% of blood that is buffy coat

45

% of blood that is Erythrocytes

hematocrit

a measuring instrument to determine (usually by centrifugation) the relative amounts of corpuscles and plasma in the blood (singular)

slightly alkaline

pH of blood

8

% of body weight attributed to blood

albumin

Protein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood (singular)

hemoglobin

iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells (singular)

hemocytoblasts

stem cells that give rise to all the formed elements of the blood (plural)

hemopoiesis

formation of blood cells

plasma proteins

function to buffer blood, transport molecules, and maintain osmotic pressure (plural)

globin

The protein portion of hemoglobin (singular)

heme

a complex red organic pigment containing iron and other atoms to which oxygen binds (singular)

oxyhemoglobin

compound formed when oxygen combines with hemoglobin (singular)

deoxyhemoglobin

hemoglobin with no oxygen bound to it, a dull red color. (singular)

carbaminohemoglobin

the compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin (singular)

erythropoiesis

process of RBC production, is a negative feedback system

reticulocyte

an immature red blood cell containing a network of filaments or granules (singular)

erythropoietin

A hormone produced and released by the kidney that stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow. (singular)

ferritin

primary iron storage protein; soluble in blood; serum level reflects marrow storage iron (singular)

hemosiderin

iron-containing pigment derived from breakdown of hemoglobin (singular)

transferrin

a globulin in blood plasma that carries iron (singular)

120

red blood cells have a lifespan of approximately ______ (number) days

bilirubin

Orange-yellow pigment in bile. It is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die. (singular)

anemia

"lacking blood" lack of a normal number of red blood cells (singular)

hemorrhagic anemia

acute or chronic loss of blood (singular)

hemolytic anemia

extreme reduction in circulating RBC's due to their destruction (singular)

aplastic anemia

failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow (singular)

microcytes

small pale iron deficient rbcs (plural)

macrocytes

abnormally large RBC (plural)

thalassemias

genetic anemia in which one of the globin chains is faulty or absent and the rbcs are thin, delicate and deficient in hemoglobin (common in people of Mediterranean ancestry) (plural)

sickle cell anemia

a genetic disorder in which erythroctyes take on an abnormal curved or "sickle" shape (singular)

hemoglobin S

sickle cell hemoglobin

polycythemia

a disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood (singular)

blood doping

"induced erythrocythemia"-procedure to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. Increases Concentration of RBC

diapedesis

passage of blood cells (especially white blood cells) through intact capillary walls and into the surrounding tissue

amoeboid motion

when WBCs form flowing cytoplasmic extensions that move them along (singular)

positive chemotaxis

movement toward a chemical stimulus

leukocytosis

abnormal increase of white blood cells

never let monkeys eat bananas

mnemonic for remembering leukocytes in order of most abundant to least abundant

granulocytes

A group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. (plural)

neutrophils

The most abundant type of white blood cell, are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days. (plural)

polymorphonuclear

pertaining to a many-shaped nucleus; a type of white blood cell (polys)

eosinophils

white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites (2-4 % of WBC's) (plural)

basophils

Blood cells that enter damaged tissues and enhance the inflammation process and contain histamine and heparin (.5-1% of WBC's) (plural)

agranulocytes

A group of leukocytes without granules in their nuclei; lymphocytes, monocytes. (plural)

lymphocytes

the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. (25 % of WBC's) (plural)

monocytes

an agranular leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage (3-8% of WBC's) (plural)

leukopoiesis

the formation of white blood cells, begins in the marrow.

interleukins

proteins that stimulate the growth of B and T lymphocytes (plural)

colony stimulating factors

Stimulate progenitor cells in bone marrow to increase numbers of leukocytes, thereby improving immune function (plural)

myeloid stem cell

secondary stem cell; produces all formed elements (except lymphocytes) (singular)

lymphoid stem cell

secondary stem cell; produces lymphocytes (singular)

leukopenia

an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count

leukemia

malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow

mononucleosis

a condition caused by the Epstein-Barr virus characterized by an increase in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) in the blood, along with enlarged lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), fatigue, and sore throat (pharyngitis)

megakaryocytes

the large multinucleate cells that platelets are fragments of (plural)

thrombopoietin

hormone from liver stimulates platelet formation (singular)

hemostasis

the stoppage of bleeding

vascular spasm

1st step in hemostasis, important phase that platelets play in blood clotting which helps to prevent blood loss by the contraction of the smooth muscle lining the vessels

platelet plug formation

2nd step in hemostasis, When vessels are damaged, platelets will adhere to the rough edges. This may stop the leak. The platelets also release clotting factors.

coagulation

3rd step in hemostasis, blood clotting

procoagulants

compounds that promote clotting,Activated when injury occurs. (plural)

intrinsic pathway

coagulation pathway involving coagulation factors circulating within the bloodstream (singular)

extrinsic pathway

coagulation pathway initiated by the release of thromboplastin from injured tissue (singular)

prothrombin

plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process (singular)

thrombin

an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot (singular)

fibrinogen

Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process (singular)

fibrin

a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots (singular)

anticoagulants

Substances that inhibit coagulation (plural)

clot retraction

after a clot has formed, it begins to condense into a more compact structure by this process (singular)

serum

plasma minus clotting proteins and cells (singular)

fibrinolysis

a normal ongoing process that dissolves fibrin and results in the removal of small blood clots

plasmin

an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots (singular)

heparin

anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells (singular)

thromboembolic disorders

diseases associated with the undesirable formation of blood clots (plural)

bleeding disorders

abnormalities that prevent normal clot formation (plural)

disseminated intravascular coagulation

widespread clotting in the blood vessels causing obstruction to the tissues (singular)

thrombus

a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin (singular)

embolus

A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream. (singular)

embolism

the sudden closure of a blood vessel by a traveling blood clot, or embolus (singular)

warfarin

an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus (singular)

thrombocytopenia

a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood (singular)

hemophilias

hereditary bleeding disorders caused by lack of clotting factors (plural)

agglutinogens

Antigens formed on the surface of red blood cells, whose presence and structure are genetically determined. (plural)

ABO blood groups

Genetically determined classes of human blood that are based on the presence or absence of carbohydrates A and B on the surface of red blood cells; phenotypes, also called blood types, are A, B, AB, and O. (plural)

Rh blood groups

the extensive, genetically determined system of red blood cell antigens defined by the immune serum of rabbits injected with rhesus monkey erythrocytes, or by human antisera (plural)

AB

blood type that can receive A,B,AB, or O

B

blood type that can receive B or O

A

blood type that can receive A or O

O

blood type that can receive O

erythroblastosis fetalis

hemolytic disease in the newborn caused by a blood groop (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus (singular)

A

identify blood type #1

B

identify blood type #2

AB

identify blood type #3

O

identify blood type #4

transfusion reaction

a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match (singular)

autologous transfusion

a transfusion prepared from a donor's own blood (singular)

thrombo-

clot of blood (prefix)

erythro-

red (prefix)

-penia

deficiency (suffix)

-poietin

that which causes production (suffix)

-phils

phagacyte (suffix)

hemolytic

relating to that which is destructive to red blood cells (singular)

-hemia

blood condition (suffix)

Monocyte

Kidney shaped clear background

Lymphocyte

Spherical

Eosinophil

Bi-lobed granular background

Neutrophil

Multi-lobed granular background

Most common white blood cell found in whole blood

Neutrophil

Mounts an immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies

Lympocyte

Kills parasitic worms

Eosinophil

Becomes a macrophage

Monocyte

Main bacteria killer during acute infections

Neutrophil

SEE Figure 17.1 and 17.2

Study guide!

Nucleus has two lobes; contains granules of lysosomal enzymes; functions in attacking parasitic worms.

Eosinophil

Nucleus is multilobed; functions as a phagocyte; contains fine indistinct granules

Neutrophil

Transports CO2 and oxygen

Erythrocytes

Contains a U- or an S-shaped nucleus; granules stain very dark; releases histamine and heparin

Basophils

Largest of the WBCs; crucial in defense against viruses; associated with chronic infections

Monocytes

The major contributor to plasma osmotic pressure.

Albumin

Thrombin catalyzes the activation of these molecules present in plasma.

Fibrinogen

Forms the structural framework of a blood clot.

Fibrinogen

Makes up most of plasma protein.

Albumin

Main contributor to osmotic pressure.

Albumin

Antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response.

Gamma Gobulins

Forms fibrin thread of blood clot.

Fibrinogen

Transport proteins that bind to lipids, metal ions, and fat-soluble vitamins.

Alpha and Beta Gobulins

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte.

Neutrophil

White blood cell with dark-staining nucleus.

Monocyte

Protein capable of changing shape and color in the presence of O2.

Hemoglobin

Adverse reaction of donor blood cells with recipient plasma.

Agglutination

Lacking in hemophilia type A.

Factor VIII

Produced by platelets.

Prostaglandin derivates such as Thrombozane A2

A fibrous protein that gives shape to an RBC plasma membrane.

Spectrin

Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs.

Erythropoietin

Stimulates WBC production.

Interleukins and CSF's

Natural anticoagulant found in basophils.

Heparin

Universal donor.

Type O

Universal recipient.

Type AB

Cancerous condition involving white blood cells.

Leukemia

Condition in which blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity.

Anemia

Abnormal excess of erythrocytes resulting in an increase in blood viscosity.

Polycythemia

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