Slightly movable joints
Freely movable joints
Bones are connected by fibrous tissue(dense, regular connective tissue), no joint cavity present, immovable or slightly movable
First type of fibrous joint. Occur only between bones of skull, fibrous tissue ossifies by middle age and skull bones fuse together
2nd type of fibrous joint, bones connected by ligaments, amount of movement depends on length of ligament, distal tibiofibular articulation and interosseous membrane between radius and ulna are examples
3rd type of fibrous joint, immobile, articulates tooth with socket, connector is called periodontal ligament
Articulating bones united by cartilage.
A joint where hyaline cartilage unites bones, epiphyseal plates, the rib's first costal cartilage, and manubrium are examples. Immovable
A joint where fibrocartilage unites the bones, and hyaline is present on the bony surfaces as an articulation point. Intervertebral discs and pubic symphisis of pelvis
The most movable joints in the body, all are diarthroses
The ends of opposing bones are covered in articular hyaline cartilage
A feature unique to synovial joints, a potential space that holds a small amount of synovial fluid
A two layered articular capsule outer layer is fibrous capsule of dense irregular connective tissue continuous with periosteum, inner layer is synovial membrane.
Viscous liquid inside synovial cavity composed of blood filtrate and glycoproteins
Some synovial joints are reinforced and strengthened by bandlike ligaments
Thickened parts of the fibrous capsule
Located outside of the fibrous capsule, like tibial and fibular collateral ligaments of the knee
Internal to the capsule covered with a synovial membrane that separates them from the joint cavity through which they run,ex. the ACL and PCL of the knee.
Nerves and vessels
Synovial joints are richly supplied with nerves and bvs
An articular disc found in joints whose bones have somewhat different shapes ex. mandibular joint, sternocalvicular joint
A flattened fibrous sac lined by synovial membrane, occur where ligaments, muscles, and bones lie over and rub against one another
An elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon like a bun to a hot dog, only occur on tendons that are subjected to friction
1st factor in joint stabilization. Articular surfaces of bones in a joint fit together in a complementary manner, shapes determine what kind of movement is possible at joint.
2nd factor in joint stabilization. Capsules and ligaments hold bones together and prevent excessive or undesirable motions.
3rd factor in joint stabilization. A constant, low level of contractile force generated by muscle even when it is not causing movement.