Refers to the tendency of an individual to regard situations in which he or she is involved as caused by external factors, and to regard situations he or she observes as caused by the actions of those involved.
* - Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 730)
* - Unselfish regard for the welfare of others. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 745)
* - A belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 708)
* - Judgments about the causes of outcomes.
The theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 706)
The tendency for any given person to be less likely to give aid if other persons are present. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 746)
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
* - The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 711)
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 744)
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 737)
* - Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 714)
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 118)
* - The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 721)
Diffusion of Responsibility
* - In emergency situations, the larger the number of bystanders, the less responsibility any one bystander feels to help.
* - (social behavior) - In social relations, taking action against a group of people because of stereotyped beliefs and feelings of prejudice.
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 744)
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
States that facial movement could influence emotional experience.
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 709)
The principle that frustration -the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 732)
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 706)
One's sense of being male or female. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 125)
A set of expected behaviors for males and females. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 123)
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be a male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 125)
The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 125)
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction. A strategy designed to decrease international tensions. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 749)
* - The enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 721)
* - The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 722)
Informational Social Influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 715)
"Us" - People with whom one shares a common identity. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 728)
The tendency to favor one's own group. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 728)
The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 730)
Self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 120)
Mere Exposure Effect
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 740)
An understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. It prescribes "proper" behavior. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 119)
Normative Social Influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 715)
* - Submissive compliance is the act of following orders from others.
"Them" - Those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 728)
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 743)
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 119)
* - An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 725)
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 123)
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 728)
Self Serving Bias
* - A readiness to perceive oneself favorably. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 614)
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 744)
* - A prediction made about some future behavior or event that modifies interactions so as to produce what is expected.
Social Exchange Theory
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 747)
* - Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 719)
Social Learning Theory
The theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 125)
* - The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 720)
* - The expectation a group has for its members regarding acceptable and appropriate attitudes and behaviors.
* - A persistent, irrational fear that arises in anticipation of a public situation in which an individual can be observed by others.
* - The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 706)
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 738)
* - A generalization (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 725)
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 748)
The sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two; males have one. One from each parent produces a female child. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 122)
The sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with the sex chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 122)
The most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 122)
Giving priority to the goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defining one's identity accordingly. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 616)
Giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications. (Myers Psychology 7e p. 616)