Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Muscle fiber

This term is synonymous with muscle cell

Myoblast

These progenitor cells fuse together to form longer muscle (which is why muscle is multinucleate)

Contractility, Elasticity, Excitability, Extensibility

Four functional characteristics of muscle tissue (alphabetical)

Contractility

A characteristic of muscle tissue; ability to generate a pulling force while shortening/contracting

Elasticity

A characteristic of muscle tissue; ability to recoil passively after being stretched

Extensibility

A characteristic of muscle tissue; the ability for one muscle to be stretched by the contraction of an opposing muscle

Excitability

A characteristic of muscle tissue; similar to nervous tissue; electrical impulses travel along cells' plasma membrane, stimulating cells to contract

Cardiac, Skeletal (focus), Smooth

Types of muscle (alphabetical)

Origin

The end of a muscle that doesn't move; attachment of muscle that remains relatively fixed during contraction; generally more medial or proximal end; muscle moves from the insertion towards here

Insertion

The moving end of a muscle; the movable attachment of a muscle; generally more lateral or distal; muscle moves from here towards the origin in as straight a line as possible

Action

What the muscle does; the final part of OIA

Guard orifices, Heat (production), Movement, (maintain) Posture, Support (soft tissues; not sure if this was what she mentioned in class)

Functions of skeletal muscle (also joint stabilization)

Sarko

Prefix meaning "flesh"; a prefix which denotes muscle

Mys

Prefix meaning "mouse" (because muscles look like a mouse running underneath the skin); a prefix which denotes muscle

Epimysium

This is the layer (of dense, irregular CT) which covers the entire skeletal muscle

Perimysium

This is the layer (of fibrous CT) which covers each fascicle or bundle of muscle fibers

Endomysium

This is the layer (of reticular CT) which covers each individual muscle fiber

Fascicle

This term is synonymous with bundle; a group of muscle fibers

Aponeurosis

A flat tendon (i.e. in face or abdomen); flat tendonis sheet attaches to bone, no cords

Sarcolemma

The name of the plasma (cell) membrane of a muscle cell (which is then surrounded by endomysium)

Sarcoplasm

The name of the cytoplasm of a muscle cell

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

The name of specialized smooth ER in a muscle cell which stores calcium ions.

Myofibril

Many of these exist within a muscle fiber; an organelle within a muscle fiber; rodlike bundle of contractile myofilaments, made of repeating segments called sarcomeres

Myofilament

Contained within myofibrils; actin and myosin are examples of this (make up sarcomeres); cause/form striations; special type of microfilament

Actin

A type of protein; the thinner myofilament in sarcomeres; heads of myosin attach to this, use caulking and catching action to shorten sarcomeres

Myosin

A type of protein; the thicker myofilament in sarcomeres; heads of this attach to actin, use caulking and catching action to shorten sarcomeres

Sliding filament theory

The name of the theory which describes the caulking and catching action of myosin and actin to shorten sarcomeres, and therefore contract muscles

Smooth muscle

This muscle type contains sarcomeres, but they don't line up so clear striations are not "visible"

Holds muscle together so it expands and contracts as one

Purpose of "mysiums"

Rectus

Term which means straight (up and down; used for naming muscles)

Oblique

Term which means angle (used for naming muscles)

Transverse

Term which means side to side (used for naming muscles)

Deltoid

This is the name of a muscle but also means "triangle"

Bi, tri, quad

Prefixes for types of muscle origins

Agonist

The prime mover; the prime muscle for movement (contracts)

Antagonist

The muscle(s) that oppose the movement of the agonist

Synergist

A term for muscles which work together (i.e. in quads there are four muscles working together)

Reduction in elasticity, power, size, increase in stiffness (however can keep muscles in shape with exercise)

Aging effects on muscle tissue

Hypertrophy

Enlargement of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its cells

Atrophy

Reduction of size or wasting away of an organ or tissue

Convergent

A pattern of fascicle arrangement where the origin of a muscle is broad and the fascicles ____(nt) toward the tendon of insertion (i.e. pectoralis major)

Pennate

The prefix of this term means "feather"; a pattern of fascicle arrangement where the fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a tendon; the deltoid is multi_____

Tendon

Cord of dense, regular CT that attaches muscle to bone

Diaphragm

This is the broad muscle pierced by the aorta, inferior vena cava, and esophagus; forms floor of thoracic cavity (separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity); in relaxed state is dome-shaped; fibers converge from margins of thoracic cage toward a boomerang-shaped central tendon

Diaphragm

The muscle with these OIA: O - inferior internal surface of rib cage and sternum, costal cartilages of last six ribs, lumbar vertebrae; I - central tendon; A - prime mover of inspiration

Diaphragm

This muscle's action is - prime mover of inspiration; flattens on contraction, increasing vertical dimensions of thorax; when strongly contracted, dramatically increases intra-abdominal pressure

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set