A&PII Chapter 17

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Blood

only fluid tissue in the body
specialized type of connective tissue

specialized type of connective tissue
contains

formed elements
plasma

plasma

nonliving fluid matrix
lacks
dissolved fibrous strands become visible during blood clotting

plasma lacks

collagen
elastic fibers dissolved fibrous strands become visible during blood clotting

Centrifuge Blood

heavier elements to bottom
less dense to top
buffy coat

heavier elements to bottom

most are "erythrocytes"

Centrifuge Blood
heavier elements to bottom
most are "erythrocytes"

red blood cells

red blood cells

transport oxygen

Centrifuge Blood
less dense to top

plasma

Centrifuge Blood
buffy coat

thin
whitish
separates erythrocytes from plasma
contains "leukocytes"
contains "platelets"

buffy coat
contains "leukocytes"

protect the body

buffy coat
contains "platelets"

cell fragments that help stop bleeding

Percentage of Blood Volume

hematocrit
leukocytes and platelets
plasma

hematocrit

percentage occupied by red blood cells

hematocrit
percentage occupied by red blood cells

healthy males 47% +/- 5%
healthy females 42% +/- 5%

Percentage of Blood Volume
leukocytes and platelets

<1%

Percentage of Blood Volume
plasma

~55%

Blood Functions
Purpose

distributing substances
regulating blood

Blood Functions
Distribution

deliver oxygen from lungs
deliver nutrients from digestive tract
to all body cells
Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites
Transporting hormones

Distribution
Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites

lungs
kidneys

Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites
lungs

carbon dioxide

Transporting metabolic waste products from cells to elimination sites
kidneys

nitrogenous wastes in urine

Blood Functions
Distribution
Transporting hormones

from....to
from....to endocrine organs..their target organs

Blood Functions
Regulatory

Maintaining Body Temp
Maintaining normal pH
Maintaining Adequate Fluid Volume

Regulatory
Maintaining Body Temp mechanism

mechanism
distributing heat
throughout

Maintaining Body Temp
mechanism

body
skin surface
to encourage heat loss

Regulatory
Maintaining normal pH

buffers
reservoir for body's "alkaline reserve"

Maintaining normal pH
buffers

blood proteins
bloodborne solutes
prevent

Maintaining normal pH
buffers
prevent

excesive or abrubt changes in blood pH

Maintaining normal pH
buffers
prevent excesive or abrubt changes in blood pH

jeopardize normal cell activities

Regulatory
Maintaining normal pH
reservoir for body's "alkaline reserve"

bicarbonate atoms

Maintaining Adequate Fluid Volume

maintenance to support efficient blood circulation thru body
salts and blood proteins act to prevent excessive fluid loss

salts and blood proteins act to prevent excessive fluid loss

NaCL and others

Protection

Preventing Blood Loss
Preventing Infection

Protection Preventing Blood Loss

platelets and plasma proteins initiate clot formation
clot formation halts blood loss

Preventing Infection

defenders in the blood

Protection
Preventing Infection
defenders in the blood

antibodies
complement proteins
white blood cells

Composition of Plasma

Water
Solutes

Composition of Plasma Water

90% of plasma volume
dissolving and suspending medium for solutes
absorbs heat

Composition of Plasma
Solutes

Plasma Proteins
Specific Plasma Proteins
Nonprotein nitrogenous substances

Composition of Plasma
Solutes
Plasma Proteins

8% by weight of plasma volume
all contribute to osmotic pressure
maintain water balance in blood and tissues
all have other functions

Plasma Proteins
all have other functions

transport
enzymatic
etc

Specific Plasma Proteins

Albumin
Globulins

Specific Plasma Proteins
Albumin

60% of plasma proteins
produced by liver
main contributor to osmotic pressure (sodium ions are the other contributor to osmotic pressure)
carrier to shuttle molecules

Specific Plasma Proteins
Globulins

36% of plasma proteins
alpha, beta
gamma
fibrinogen

Globulins
alpha, beta

produced by liver
most are transport proteins
that bind to

alpha, beta
that bind to

lipids
metal ions
fat-soluble vitamins

Globulins
gamma

antibodies released by plasma cells during immune response

Globulins
fibrinogen

4% of plasma proteins
produced by liver
forms fibrin threads of blood clot

List the formed element classes of blood

erythrocytes
leukocytes
platelets

Formed Elements
Overview of Gen char.

erythrocytes
platelets are cell fragments
leukocytes are complete cells
most formed elements only last a few days
continuously renewed by bone marrow

Overview of Gen char. erythrocytes

have no
vastly outnumber the other cell types

erythrocytes have no

nuclei
organelles

Formed Elements
Overview of Gen char.
continuously renewed by bone marrow

through cell division

Erythrocytes Structural char

erythrocytes means
small, about 7nanometers diameter
shape
appear lighter at center than edges
bound by plasma membrane
lack
contain

Erythrocytes
Structural char
erythrocytes means

red blood cell

Erythrocytes
Structural char
shape

concave discs
w/ depressed centers

Erythrocytes
Structural char
lack

nucleus
organelles

Erythrocytes
Structural char contain

hemoglobin
other proteins

Erythrocytes
Structural char contain hemoglobin

RBC protein that functions in gas transport

Erythrocytes
Structural char contain other proteins

antioxidant enzymes
most function to

Erythrocytes
Structural char contain other proteins antioxidant enzymes

rid the body of harmful oxygen radicals

Erythrocytes
Structural char contain other proteins most function to

maintain the plasma membrane
promote changes in RBC shape
example

Erythrocytes
Structural char contain other proteins most function to example

spectrin

spectrin

one of the proteins that maintains biconcave shape of erythrocyte
attached to cytoplasmic face of its plasma membrane
spectrin net is deformable

spectrin
spectrin net is deformable

gives erythrocytes ability to change shape as needed
and resume shape

Erythrocytes Structural Characteristics contributing to gas transport

huge surface area to volume ratio

Erythrocytes Structural Characteristics contributing to gas transport huge surface area to volume ratio

small size
biconcave shape
30% more surface area than spherical cells
no point far from cell surface

Erythrocytes
Structural Characteristics contributing to gas transport
97% hemoglobin (discounting water)

binds and transports respiratory gases

Erythrocytes Structural Characteristics contributing to gas transport
efficient oxygen transporters

mitochondria
generate ATP by anaerobic mechanisms
don't consume oxygen they carry

Erythrocytes Blood Viscocity

women
men
when number of RBC's increases, blood viscosity increases
when number of RBC's decreases, blood viscosity increases

Erythrocytes Blood Viscocity
women

lower red blood cell count 4.3 - 5.2 million cells per microliter

Erythrocytes Blood Viscocity men

higher red blood cell count 5.1 - 5.8 million per microliter

Erythrocytes
Blood Viscocity
when number of RBC's increases, blood viscosity increases

blood thickens
flows more slowly

Erythrocytes
Blood Viscocity
when number of RBC's decreases, blood viscosity increases

blood thins
flows more rapidly

Erythrocytes Function
hemoglobin

the protein that binds to oxygen
makes blood cells red
normal values
structure
each hemoglobin carries 4 oxygen atoms
single red blood cell has 250 million hemoglobin
contained in erythrocytes

Erythrocytes Function
hemoglobin
normal values

14-20 g/100mL infants
13-18 g/100mL adult males
12-16 g/100 mL adult females

Erythrocytes
hemoglobin
structure

heme
globin

Erythrocytes
hemoglobin
structure heme

ringlike
bears iron atom
pigment

structure heme
bears iron atom

combines reversible w/ oxygen atom

structure
globin

4
alpha
beta
protein

Erythrocytes
hemoglobin
contained in erythrocytes
prevents

breaking into fragments
contributing to blood viscosity

Mnemonic

Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas order of leukocytes according to abundance

order of leukocytes according to abundance

neutrophils
lymphocytes
monocytes
eosinophils
basophils

Granulocytes include

neutrophils
basophils
eosinophils

Granulocytes
characteristics

roughly spherical
larger than erythrocytes
shorter lived than erythrocytes
lobed nuclei
stain specifically w/ Wright's stain

Granulocytes
Neutrophils

most numerous of WBC
50 - 70 % of WBC
twice as large as Erythrocytes
cytoplasm nuclei
Fight bacteria

Neutrophils
cytoplasm
contains granules

take up both blue (basic) and red (acidic) dyes
the two types of granule

Neutrophils
cytoplasm
contains granules
the two types of granule

lysosomes
other type

Neutrophils
cytoplasm
contains granules
the two types of granule lysosomes

contain hydrolytic enzymes

Neutrophils
cytoplasm
contains granules
the two types of granule other type

contain defensins - potent brew of antimicrobial proteins

Granulocytes
Neutrophils
nuclei

3 to 6 lobes
polymorphonuclear

Granulocytes
Neutrophils
nuclei polymorphonuclear

due to variability

Neutrophils
Fight bacteria

increase explosively during bacteria infections
chemically attracted to sites of inflammation
active phagocytes
bacterial killing by "respiratory burst"

Neutrophils
Fight bacteria
increase explosively during bacteria infections

meningitis
appendicitis
etc

Neutrophils
Fight bacteria bacterial killing by "respiratory burst"

oxygen actively metabolized
produces germ killer substances
defensin mediated lysis occurs

Neutrophils
Fight bacteria bacterial killing by "respiratory burst" produces germ killer substances

bleach
hydrogen peroxide

Neutrophils
Fight bacteria bacterial killing by "respiratory burst" defensin mediated lysis occurs

granules containing defensins
merge with
microbe containing phagosome
defensins form peptide spears
pierce holes in membrane of ingested "foe"

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