The psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning
Mental representations of categories of items or ideas based on experience
A mental image that incorporates the features we associate with a category (yellow lab, pure bred dog)
Mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world
Universiality of Prototypes
Prototypes are subject to society's definitions and environment.
A mental shortcut that involves basing judgements on existing information
When people make decisions, they use anchors to begin their decision process.
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevent information
Cognitive Error. Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Cognitive Error. A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
Overconfidence about Decisions
Overestimation of accuracy. Dunning-Kruger Effect.
Basic Characteristics of Language
Symbols, Grammar, Infinite Generativity
The ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules. Infinite generativity is something that all human languages share.
Early Stages of Language Development
The first year: Babbling, Receptive vs productive language, One-word stage
The second year: Rapid acceleration, Telegraphic speech, Overgeneralizing rules
Language Acquisition (Behavioralist)
Conditioning and Reinforcement, Imitation
Language Acquisition (Biological)
Noam Chomsky, Critical/sensitive period, Feral children, Second language
Theorist who believed that humans have an inborn or "native" propensity to develop language. (Native = Nature).
Infantile Period when an individual develops basis for language
The nature of a particular language influences the habitual thought of its speakers. Language influences Thought. [Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis]
Language that is intended to be evasive or to conceal. Ex. "downsized" actually means fired or loss of job.
The use of masculine nouns and pronouns to refer to all human beings, instead of males alone
Benefits of Bilingualism
Language Abilities of Animals
Animals are capable of communicating. Apes can exhibit insight, show family loyalty, communicate with one another, display altruism, transmit cultural patterns, and even comprehend the syntax of human speech.