Apologia Anatomy and Physiology Lesson 9: Nervous and Endocrine System

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Apologia Exploring Creation with Human Anatomy and Physiology

Nervous System

The two part system (central and peripheral) that controls a huge number of activities in your body

Central Nervous System

Contains the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

Contains nerves that spread out from the central nervous system to the outer edges of the body

Autonomic nervous system

The part of the peripheral nervous system that works automatically. It controls your smooth muscles so your organs can function without your thinking about them.

Somatic nervous system

The part of the peripheral nervous system that is responsible for the voluntary movements you make

Brainstem

Connects the brain to the spinal cord and controls things like your breathing and heartbeat

Cerebellum

The "little brain" that controls your complex muscle movements, helping you to maintain balance

Cerebrum

The largest part of the brain where most of your conscious actions are controlled and your thoughts are thought

Cerebral Cortex

The folded outer part of your cerebrum

Integration

A function of the brain that sorts and processes information, making it understandable and usable

Neurons

The most important cells in the nervous system. They receive, store and process information, as well as send messages throughout the body

Sensory Neurons

Neurons that send information to your spinal cord and brain for processing

Motor Neurons

Neurons that send information from your brain and spinal cord to your body, telling our muscles and other organs what to do

Interneuron

A type of neuron that is found between (and connects) other neurons

Dendrite

one of the "arms" of a neuron that reaches out in many directions and gathers information

Cell body

The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus and receives information from the dendrites

Axon

The part of the neuron that transmits information from the nucleus to the different parts of the body

Myelin sheath

The fatty tissue wrapped around an axon that allows information to travel more quickly down the axon

Synapse

The very tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another

Neurotransmitters

Chemicals at the end of an axon that transmit information from one neuron to another

Nerves

Bundles of neural axons running together. They gather information from inside and outside the body and send it to the brain. They also carry commands from the brain to the body

Endocrine System

The system that operates through hormones to coordinate and control many of the activities that go on in your body

Gland

A special organ in your body that produces a chemical which your body needs

Hormones

Chemicals produced in your glands and which are messengers. These chemicals travel through the blood stream telling cells or organs what to do and when to do it

Adrenal Gland

A gland which sits on top of your kidney and releases the hormone epinephrine, which tells the cells to release any sugar stored up when you need to run away or fight (flight or fight response)

Thyroid Gland

The gland which is on the front of the neck and produces a hormone that speeds up the rate at which cells burn their fuel for energy

Pituitary Gland

The gland in your brain that is the central controller for many other hormone releasing glands

Thymus Gland

The gland that helps the body's defense system by producing hormones responsible for the development of a certain type of white blood cell

Homeostasis

The condition that occurs when all of the systems in your body are working together to maintain a stable, healthy condition

Name the three parts of the brain we discussed.

Cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem

What part of a neuron receives information?

The dendrite

What part sends the information on its way?

The axon

Where do you find the nucleus in a neuron?

In the cell body

What does a sensory neuron do?

It takes information to the brain or spinal cord

What does a motor neuron do?

It sends information from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles and organs of the body, telling them what to do.

What is the somatic nervous system?

It is the part of the nervous system responsible for the voluntary movements you make.

What is the autonomic nervous system?

It is the part of the nervous system that covers the involuntary activities of your body.

What does the endocrine system ?

It makes and releases hormones to control activities in the body.

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