Apologia Anatomy & Physiology Lesson 4 Digestive System

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Apologia Exploring Creation with Human Anatomy & Physiology

digestion

the process of breaking down food into the usable nutrients and waste products

digestive system

a group of organs that take in and digest food, and eliminate solid wastes

gastrointestinal tract

part of the digestive system that food passes through; a long, muscular tube consisting of several organs: the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine

alimentary canal

another name for the gastrointestinal tract

carbohydrates

one of the main nutrients needed by the body; it is a sugar or a starch; changes to glucose in body

proteins

one of the main nutrients needed by the body; found in meat and fish

fats

one of the main nutrients needed by the body; comes from oil, nuts, butter, and meat

defecation

the removal of waste products from the body

mechanical digestion

the grinding up and moving along of food; the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces

incisors

teeth that are sharp and useful for biting

cuspids

teeth that are sharp and made for tearing food

premolars

in front of molars and used for grinding food

molars

behind premolars and used for grinding food

diet

the food and beverages a person eats and drinks

enamel

hardest substance in body; non-living, outermost layer of a tooth

dentin

supports the enamel and absorbs shocks that could damage the tooth, bone-like material found below enamel

pulp

the soft inner part of a tooth where the nerves and blood vessels are found

crown

the visible part of the tooth above the gums

chemical digestion

when saliva begins to break down food into much smaller chemical parts; the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical building blocks

saliva

the spit in your mouth; a colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process, and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing

enzyme

chemicals in your body that do many things; these break down food into smaller chemical pieces

amylase

enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches

bolus

the ball of food in your mouth that forms while you chew

larynx

the tube in the back of your mouth leading to your lungs

sphincter

a ring of muscle that contracts to close an opening

gastroesophageal sphincter

the special circular muscle between the esophagus and the stomach

pepsin

a powerful enzyme in your stomach that can break down proteins

burp

a reflex that expels air noisily from the stomach through the mouth.

vomiting

to expel the contents of the stomach through the mouth

mucus

a protective secretion of the mucous membranes; a thick, slimy liquid that keeps the stomach acid from coming into contact with the stomach wall,

pyloric sphincter

the specialized circular muscle that allows chyme to go from the stomach to the small intestine

duodenum

part of the small intestine; only 1 foot long, where most of chemical digestion takes place

jejunum

part of the small intestine; 8 feet long; absorb nutrients from digestion

ileum

part of the small intestine; 11 feet long; absorbs nutrients from digestion

villi

tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine; where nutrients are absorbed into the blood

liver

an organ where nutrients are stored or distributed throughout the body; mostly stores glucose

glycogen

strings of glucose put together

bile

a chemical made in the liver and delivered to the gall bladder

gall bladder

on organ that releases bile into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine

pancreas

an organ that makes insulin

pancreatic juices

made by the pancreas; neutralizes the acid in chyme and helps to digest fats

ileocecal sphincter

the circular muscle between the small and large intestine

cecum

first part of the large intestine; appendix is attached here

colon

second part of the large intestine; between the cecum and the rectum

rectum

third part of the large intestine; where feces are stored before being eliminated

feces

the solid waste material we put into the toilet

symbiotic

a close nutritional relationship between two species in which one always benefits

appendix

attached to the cecum; an organ where friendly bacteria hide

flatulence

the passage of excessive amounts of gas in the stomach or intestines due to the digestion of complex carbohydrates

fiber

part of grains and plant foods that provides bulk but cannot be digested

kidneys

organs that filter wastes from blood to make urine

renal system

urinary system; the organs and structures responsible for filtering and excreting wastes from the blood.

ureters

tubes attached to the kidneys that allow urine to leave the kidney

bladder

the organ that holds the urine until you can find a bathroom

epiglottis

a special flap of cartilage at the back of the throat

large intestine

an organ whose main job is to form the chyme into feces

What is the white outer layer of your tooth called?

Enamel

What is the layer right below that called?

Dentin

What is the hardest substance in the
body?

Enamel

Name a few things saliva does for you.

Begins chemical digestion, protects teeth, defends against infection, and makes food taste better.

What is the name of the pipe that food goes down after you swallow it?

Esophagus

How do your stomach and esophagus keep from getting burned by your own stomach acid?

Mucus is produced in the stomach, and the gastroesophageal sphincter keeps it in the stomach.

What is the food called when it enters the small intestine?

Chyme

What happens in the small intestine?

Digestion is completed, and nutrients are sent to the bloodstream.

Which organ is like a huge chemical
factory?

Liver

What do the kidneys do?

They remove excess salts, water, and other substances from the blood and put them in the urine.

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