The Endocrine System

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Chapter 16 in Martini's Visual Anatomy and Physiology

All of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it does not

function independently of the endocrine system`

Endocrine cells

release their secretions directly into body fluids

Hormones known as "catecholamines" are

derivitives of the amino acid tyrosine

Peptide hormones are

composed of amino acids

All of the following are true of steroid hormones except that they

are produced by reproductive glands

Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative except

thyroid-stimulating hormone

Extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?

catecholamines, peptide hormones, eicosanoids

Steroid hormones

bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cell

When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds receptors on the surface of a cell, the

second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include

peptides, steroids, eicosanoids, amino acid derivatives

Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect

quantities of enzymes, activities of enzymes, synthesis of enzymes, gating of ion channels

The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually

a G protein

When adenyl cyclase is activated

ATP is consumed, cAMP is formed

After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex

gene transcription is initiated

The most complex endocrine responses involve the

hypothalamus

Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?

blood level of an ion-like potassium, blood level of glucose, blood level of a hormone, nervous stimuli

Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of

ADH

Regulatory factors that control secretion of adenohypophyseal hormones are release by neurons at the __________ of the hypothalamus.

median eminence

The hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by

secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system

Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture

ADH and oxytocin

Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release

FSH, TSH, and GH

The posterior pituitary gland secrets

ADH

The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is

MSH

Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, except

oxytocin

The hormone oxytocin

Promotes uterine contractions, is responsible for milk expression from mammary glands, triggers prostate gland contraction

Growth hormone does all of the following except that it

causes fat accumulation within adipocytes

Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called

somatomedins

The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is

TSH

The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is

ACTH

The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is

FSH

The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is

LH

The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is

prolactin

The pituitary gland that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is

somatotropin

The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is

ADH

Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues?

increased oxygen consumption, increased heart rate, increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation, increased body temperature

Thyroid hormone contains the element

iodine

Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of

hypothyroidism

The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is

thyroxine

A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is

calcitonin

The condition known as goiter can result from too

little iodine in the diet.

The C cells of the thyroid gland produce

calcitonin

Increased levels of the hormone _______ will lead to increased levels of calcium in the blood.

PTH

The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is

parathyroid hormone

Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the

lungs

The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of

angiotensin

The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that

increases the level of calcium ions in the blood

The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces

androgens

The zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces

glucocorticoids

The zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces

mineralocorticoids

The suprarenal medulla produces

catecholamines

A hormone that produces gluconeogenesis in the liver is

cortisol

A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is

aldosterone

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is

insulin

Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes

Addison disease

A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is

cortisol

Pinealocytes produce

melatonin

When blood glucose levels rise,

insulin is released

When blood glucose levels fall,

glucagon is released

Cells of the suprarenal cortex produce

aldosterone

The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

insulin

The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

somatostatin

Each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it

is a component of the hypothalamus

The exocrine portion of the pancreas produces

digestive enzymes

The pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans)

contain four types of endocrine cells

The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is

insulin

Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in

diabetes mellitus

The interstitial cells of the testes produce

testosterone

Follicle cells in the ovary secrete ___________ when stimulated by FSH.

estrogen

A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes

progesterone

When hormones interact they can produce any of the following kinds of effects, except

bucolic

The hormone that opposes the release of of FSH in both males and females is

inhibin

The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are

thymosins

Which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells?

erythropoietin

Proper growth requires which of these hormones?

thyroid hormone, calcitrol, insulin, growth hormone, **all of the above

Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones?

sex hormones

Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause

gigantism

The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is

epinephrine

During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome there is

mobilization of energy reserves

If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the __________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome.

resistance

Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome are the

glucocorticoids

During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome

lipid reserves are mobilized

The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by

decreased resistance to disease and infection

Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the

epidermis of the integumentary system

Gap junctions

coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells, coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells, facilitate the propagation of action potentials from one cell to the next at electrical synapses, **all of the above

__________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of the specific cells in other tissues.

Hormones

Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to

hypothyroidism, cretinism, goiter, high blood levels of TSH, **all of the above

Cells can respond to ___________ hormones at the same time.

3 or less

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are considered to be _________ when released into the bloodstream, but _________ when released at synapses.

hormones; neurotransmitters

The kidneys secrete

renin, erythropoietin, calcitrol

The heart is know to secrete all of the following hormones, except

thymosin and thyroxine

Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the

thyroid gland

Melatonin is produced by the

pineal gland

A kinase is an enzyme that performs

phosphorylation

An activated G protein can trigger

the production of diacyglycerol, the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane, the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores, a fall in cAMP levels

Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein

calmodulin

Hormones can operate on the ________ level of organization

cellular, tissue, organ, organismic

The functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ________ system in many ways.

endocrine

The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) __________ organ.

endocrine

A simple endocrine reflex involves ________ hormone(s).

one

The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all of these steps except one. Identify the incorrect step.

binding to a hormone recptor in the plasma membrane

PRL is to ________ as ACTH is to ________.

prolactin; corticotropin

If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting

glucagon

Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglbulin and iodine take place?

in the lumen of the thyroid follicle

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia

during pregnancy, in very young children, during fetal development, in some disease processes

The two lobes of the pituatary gland together produce how many hormones?

9

The hormone that may be slowly administered by an intravenous drip to accelerate labor and deliver is

oxytocin

TSH plays a key role in the _________ of thyroid hormones.

synthesis and release

The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct _________ regulation.

endocrine

Parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doesn't

build up bone

Alpha cells are to ________ as beta cells are to _________.

glucagon; insulin

Which of the following substances activates kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?

cyclic AMP

The primary target of insulin is

skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle; adipocytes; liver cells

In general, the effects of natriuretic peptides _______ those of of angostensin II.

oppose

After brain surgery a person receiveing postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones.

ADH

Cushing disease results from an excess of

glucocorticoids

The term used to describe excess production of urine is

polyuria

Which of the following hormones is water soluble and therefor binds to extracellular receptors?

insulin and epinephrine

The primary function of ADH is to

decrese the amount of water lost at the kidneys

Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of

aldosterone

The suprarenal medulla produces the hormones

epinephrine and norepinephrine

The adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?

epinephrine

Increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of

cAMP

Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result?

loss of ADH secretion

All target cells

have hormone receptors and respond to chemical signals

In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus,

blood glucose levels are very high, excessive thirst is shown, glucose is present in the urine in large amounts, a large excretion of urine occurs

If the median imminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?

TSH, ACTH, and PRL

The hypophyseal portal system

has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins, carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary, carries ADH and oxytocin

Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in

decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose

A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following except

ACTH levels

A rise in angiostensin II levels would result in all of the following except

increased urine production.

Decreased blood flow to the kidneys would lead to which of the following?

increased blood levels of renin, elevated blood levels of angiostensin, increased blood levels of erythropoietin

If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid to suppress the immune system, what is unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?

increase of insulin, increase of blood glucose

Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?

low blood pressure

Which of these statments about melatonin is false?

exposure to light stimulates production

The condition known as season affective disorder may be caused by

increased levels of melatonin

Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the

zona reticularis

Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plate?

Growth Hormone

Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?

epinephrine

Which of the following organs contains target cells for oxytocin?

prostate, ductus deferens, mammary glands, uterus

Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?

parathyroid glands and parathyroid hormone

Which of the following is not an action of TSH?

inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

Which of the following cooperate to prepare the mammary glands for milk secretion?

prolactin, estrogens, progesterone, placental hormones

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