Ch. 2 - Medical Terminology 1313

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Chapter 2 - Body Structure, Color, and Oncology Book: Exploring Medical Language 8th Edition (ISBN: 9780323073080)

Space inside the skull (cranium) containing the brain

Cranial cavity

Space inside the spinal column containing the spinal cord

Spinal cavity

Space containing the heart, aorta, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and bronchi

Thoracic, or chest, cavity

Space containing the stomach, intestines, kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and ureters

Abdominal cavity

Space containing the urinary bladder, certain reproductive organs, parts of the small and large intestine, and the rectum

Pelvic cavity

Both the pelvic and abdominal cavities

Abdominopelvic cavity

Regions within the chromosomes

Genes

A genetic material that regulates the activities of the cell

DNA

Basic unit of all living things

Cell

Gel-like fluid inside the cell

Cytoplasm

Contains chromosomes

Nucleus

Contains genes

Chromosomes

aden/o

Gland

cyt/o

Cell

epitheli/o

Epithilium

fibr/o

Fiber

hist/o

Tissue

kary/o

Nucleus

my/o

Muscle

neur/o

Nerve

organ/o

Organ

sarc/o

Flesh, connective tissue

system/o

System

viscer/o

Internal organs

cancer/o, carcin/o

Cancer (a disease characterized by the unregulated, abnormal growth of new cells)

eti/o

Cause (of disease)

gno/o

Knowledge

iatr/o

Physician, medicine (also means treatment)

lei/o

Smooth

onc/o

Tumor, mass

path/o

Disease

rhabd/o

Rod-shaped, striated

somat/o

Body

chlor/o

Green

chrom/o

Color

cyan/o

Blue

erythr/o

Red

leuk/o

White

melan/o

Black

xanth/o

Yellow

dia-

Through, complete

dys-

Painful, abnormal, difficult, labored

hyper-

Above, excessive

hypo-

Below, incomplete, deficient

meta-

After, beyond, change

pro-

Before

-al, -ic, -ous

Pertaining to

-cyte

Cell

-gen

Substance or agent that produces or causes

-genic

Producing, originating, causing

-logist

One who studies and treats (specialist, physician)

-logy

Study of

-oid

Resembling

-oma

Tumor, swelling

-osis

Abnormal condition (means increase when used with blood cell word roots)

-pathy

Disease

-plasia

Condition of formation, development, growth

-plasm

Growth, substance, formation

-sarcoma

Malignant tumor

-sis

State of

-stasis

Control, stop, standing

The study of tumors

Oncology

Define: Adenocarcinoma

Cancerous tumor of glandular tissue

Define: Adenoma

Tumor composed of glandular tissue (benign)

Define: Carcinoma (CA)

Cancerous tumor (malignant)

Define: Chloroma

Tumor of green color (malignant, arising from myeloid tissue)

Define: Epithelioma

Tumor composed of epithelium (may be benign or malignant)

Define: Fibroma

Tumor composed of fiber (fibrous tissue)(benign)

Define: Fibrosarcoma

Malignant tumor composed of fiber (fibrous tissue)

Define: Leiomyoma

Tumor composed of smooth muscle (benign)

Define: Leiomyosarcoma

Malignant tumor of smooth muscle

Define: Lipoma

Tumor composed of fat (benign tumor)

Define: Liposarcoma

Malignant tumor of fat

Define: Melanocarcinoma

Cancerous black tumor (malignant)

Define: Melanoma

Black tumor (primarily of the skin)

Define: Myoma

Tumor composed of muscle (benign)

Define: Neoplasm

New growth (of abnormal tissue or tumor)

Define: Neuroma

Tumor composed of nerve (benign)

Define: Rhabdomyoma

Tumor composed of striated muscle (benign)

Define: Rhabdomyosarcoma

Malignant tumor of striated muscle

Define: Sarcoma

Tumor of connective tissue (such as bone or cartilage)(highly malignant)

Define: Cytogenic

Producing cells

Define: Cytoid

Resembling a cell

Define: Cytology

Study of cells

Define: Cytoplasm

Cell substance

Define: Dysplasia

Abnormal development

Define: Epithelial

Pertaining to epithelium

Define: Erythrocyte (RBC)

Red (blood) cell

Define: Erythrocytosis

Increase in the number of red (blood) cells

Define: Histology

Study of tissue

Define: Hyperplasia

Excessive development (number of cells)

Define: Hypoplasia

Incomplete development (of an organ or tissue)

Define: Karyocyte

Cell with a nucleus

Define: Karyoplasm

Substance of a nucleus

Define: Leukocyte (WBC)

White (blood) cell

Define: Leukocytosis

Increase in the number of white (blood) cells

Define: Lipoid

Resembling fat

Define: Myopathy

Disease of the muscle

Define: Neuroid

Resembling a nerve

Define: Somatic

Pertaining to the body

Define: Somatogenic

Originating in the body (organic as opposed to psychologic)

Define: Somatopathy

Disease of the body

Define: Somatoplasm

Body substance

Define: Systemic

Pertaining to a (body) system (or the body as a whole)

Define: Visceral

Pertaining to the internal organs

Define: Cancerous

Pertaining to cancer

Define: Carcinogen

Substance that causes cancer

Define: Cyanosis

Abnormal condition of blue (bluish discoloration of the skin caused by inadequate supply of oxygen in the blood

Define: Diagnosis

State of complete knowledge (identifying a disease)

Define: Etiology

Study of causes (of diseases)

Define: Iatrogenic

Produced by a physician (the unexpected results from a treatment prescribed by a physician)

Define: Iatrology

Study of medicine

Define: Metastasis (mets)

Beyond control (spread of disease from one organ to another, as in the transfer of malignant tumors)

Define: Neopathy

New disease

Define: Oncogenic

Causing tumors

Define: Oncologist

A physician who studies and treats tumors

Define: Oncology

Study of tumors (a branch of medicine concerned with the study of malignant tumors)

Define: Organic

Pertaining to an organ

Define: Organoid

Resembling an organ

Define: Pathogenic

Producing disease

Define: Pathologist

A physician who studies diseases (examines biopsies and performs autopsies to determine the cause of disease or death)

Define: Pathology

Study of disease (a branch of medicine dealing with the study of the causes of disease and death)

Define: Prognosis (Px)

State of before knowledge (prediction of the outcome of disease)

Define: Xanthochromic

Pertaining to yellow color

Define: Xanthosis

Abnormal condition of yellow (discoloration)

Define: Benign (Not built from word parts)

Not malignant, nonrecurrent, favorable for recovery

Define: Carcinoma in situ (Not built from word parts)

Cancer in the early stage before invading surrounding tissue

Define: Chemotherapy (chemo)

Treatment of cancer wth drugs

Define: Encapsulated (Not built from word parts)

Enclosed in a capsule, as with benign tumors

Define: Exacerbation

Increase in the severity of a disease or its symptoms

Define: Idiopathic (Not built from word parts)

Pertaining to disease of unknown origin

Define: Inflammation

Response to injury or destruction of tissue characterized by redness, swelling, heat, and pain

Define: In vitro (Not built from word parts)

Within a glass, observable within a test tube

Define: In vivo (Not built from word parts)

Within the living body

Define: Malignant (Not built from word parts)

Tending to become progressively worse and to cause death, as in cancer

Define: Radiation therapy (XRT)

Treatment of cancer with a radioactive substance, x-ray, or radiation (also called radiation oncology and radiotherapy)

Define: Remission (Not built from word parts)

Improvement or absence of signs of disease

Define both words: Sign and Symptom

Sign - Objective information that is detected on physical examination such as observation that the patient has cyanosis of the nail beds.
Symptom - Subjective information; what patients say about themselves such as stating the feeling of pain in their chest while walking.

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