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Chapter 2 of Biology Today and Tomorrow for Biology 114 at Heartland Community College

Isotope

Form of an element that differs in the number of neutrons in the nucleus

Ion

Atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal number of protons and electrons

Covalent Bond

Chemical bond in which the two atoms share a pair of electrons

Ionic Bond

Chemical bond in which atoms of opposite charge are attracted to each other

Hydrogen Bond

Attraction between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom in a separate covalent bond

Hydrophilic

Substance that easily dissolves in water

Hydrophobic

Substance that resits dissolving in water

Carbohydrate

Molecule that consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio

Cellulose

Tough, insoluble carbohydrate that is the major structural material in plants

Enzyme

Organic molecule that speeds up a reaction without being changed by it

Fat

Lipid that consists of a glycerol molecule with one, two, or three fatty acid tails

Fatty Acid

Organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end

Lipid Bilayer

Double layer of lipids arranged tail-to-tail that makes up cell membranes

Phospholipid

A lipid with a phosphate in its hydrophilic head, and two non polar fatty acid tails. Makes up the lipid bilayer

Saturated Fat

Fat that consists mainly of triglycerides with three saturated fatty acid tails

Steroid

Type of lipid with four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails

Triglyceride

A fat that has three fatty acid tails

Amino Acid

Small organic compound that is a subunit of proteins.

Denature

To become so altered in shape that some or all function is lost

Protein

Organic compound that consists of one or more chains of amino acids

ATP

What cells use for energy, is made in mitochondria

Polarity of Water

Slightly negative at the oxygen end, slightly positive at the two hydrogen ends

Special Properties of Water

1. Sticky 2. Surrounds and dissolves molecules 3. Temperature stable, hard to make jiggle 4. Ice floats

Monosaccharide

Glucose, fructose and others

Disaccharides

Sucrose or table sugar

Polysaccharides

Starch, glycogen, and cellulose

Starch

Polysaccharide that plants use to store fuel

Glycogen

Polysaccharide that animals use to store fuel

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