Myer's Psychology for AP (Unit 8A: Motivation)

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Myer's Psychology for AP (Unit 8A: Motivation)

motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

instinct

a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

drive reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an arousal tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

homeostatis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant interval state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose around a particular level

incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviors

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs an then psychological needs become active

transpersonal

when people strive for meaning, purpose and communion that is beyond self

glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When it is low, we feel hungry

lateral hypothalamus

when food is deprived, blood sugar levels wane causing orexin to be sent out in the system

ventromedial hypothalamus

depresses hunger. stimulate it, the body won't eat. destroy it, food will process faster making you fat

insulin

secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose

leptin

secreted fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger

orexin

hunger triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus

ghrelin

secreted by stomach; sends "I'm hungry" to brain

obestatin

secreted by stomach; tells brain "I'm full"

PYY

digestive tract hormone; tells brain "I'm not hungry"

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore lost weight

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

neophobia

fear of new things

unit bias

similar mindlessness

anorexia

an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet still feeling fat continues to starve

bulimia

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exercise

binge eating disorder

significant binge eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, guilt but without compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia

obese

a body mass index of 30 or more

fat cells

what makes a person fat are his or her fat cells. Their count is less in fat people and are full quicker

sexual response cycle

the four states of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson; excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution

excitement

genital areas become engorged in blood; vagina expands and secretes lubricant, breasts and nipples enlarge

plateau

breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates increases. Penis becomes fully engorged and some fluid may appear at tip. Vaginal secretions continue

orgasm

female facilitates conception by positioning uterus to receive sperm. Both men and women feel same pleasure after release

resolution

body returns to unaroused state

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which men cannot reach another orgasm. can last from minutes to days

estrogen

sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than males and contributes to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, levels peak during ovulation promoting sexual receptivity

testosterone

the most important of male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex

erotic plasticity

while heterosexual males look for females in sexually explicit content, women look at both as equal

fraternal birth order effect

men who have order brothers are more likely to become homosexual and is 1/3 more likely for each brother

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