CRIJ 1313 - Test 1

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100 terms · R. Stewart, TVCC

Today there are now __________________ children in the United States.

80 million

A hundred and fifty years ago girls matured sexually at age 16. Today they do so at _____ years of age.

12.5

__________________ is formed when youths develop a firm sense of who they are and what they stand for.

Ego identity

Which of the following statements about children in the U.S. is false?

In at least half the states in the U.S., more than 40 percent of black children are poor

According to the text, about one third of U.S. households with children experience one of three housing problems. Which of the following is not one of these three problems?

housing without nearby recreational facilities

Adults 25 years of age and older with less than a high school diploma earn ______ percent less than those who have earned a high school diploma.

30

According to the findings of the most recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey, about _____ percent of high school students had smoked cigarettes at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey.

20

According to the text, youths who have been arrested four or more times and perpetuate a striking majority of serious criminal acts are known as the:

"chronic juvenile offenders"

A family style wherein the father is the final authority on all family matters and exercises complete control over his wife and children is:

paternalistic

Which of the following statements about children in the Middle Ages is false?

The parent-child relationship was particularly close and loving.

Voltaire's, Rousseau's, and Locke's vision produced a period known as the _____________________, which stressed a humanistic view of life, freedom, family, reason, and law.

Enlightenment

Under the _______________ movement, children were placed in the care of adults who trained them in specific skills.

apprenticeship

In a famous 1827 case, a duke's children were taken away from him in the name and interest of parens patriae, because:

his scandalous behavior

Which of the following best describes the operating philosophy of the juvenile court under parens patriae?

best interests of the child

During the Middle Ages in Great Britain, the chancery courts:

did not have jurisdiction over children charged with criminal conduct

What is the criteria on which juvenile sentencing is ideally based?

need for treatment

Running away and underage consumption of alcohol represent:

status offenses

"__________________" minors is the original early designation of youths who violate the law because of their minority status.

Wayward

Parents may be held civilly responsible for the conduct of their minor children, under the concept of:

vicarious liability

True or False - Kids, whose parents divorce, increase their involvement in delinquency, especially if they have a close bond with the custodial parent.

False

True or False - About 5.5 million youths are arrested each year.

False

True or False - Under early British jurisprudence, children under the age of seven were legally incapable of committing crimes.

True

True or False - Most states define minor child as an individual who falls under a statutory age limit, most commonly thirteen years of age.

False

True or False - Unlike adult defendants, children do not have the right to consult an attorney or be free from self-incrimination.

False

True or False - According to the text, status offenders are never detained or incarcerated with delinquents.

False

True or False - Research studies have consistently found that strict enforcement of curfew laws actually increase juvenile crime rates during curfew hours.

False

True or False - Since 1990, there have been no cases in which parents have been ordered to serve time in jail because their children have been truant from school.

False

The UCR uses three methods to express crime data. Which of the following is not one of these three methods?

The actual number of crimes for which the suspects were convicted.

________________ are questionnaire or survey techniques that ask subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts.

Self reports

In 2008, juveniles were responsible for about ___ percent of the property crime arrests.

26

In 2008, juveniles were responsible for about ____ percent of all arrests for violent crimes.

16

For which of the following acts are females more likely than males to be taken into custody?

running away

Males commit _____ property offenses for every one committed by females.

two

Males commit _____ serious violent offenses for every 1 committed by females.

4

In terms of race and delinquency, the official statistics show that:

minority youths are arrested for serious criminal behavior at a rate that is disproportionate to their representation in the population.

Which of the following has been linked with high-rate persistent offending in variety of cultures, time periods and offender types?

age of onset

The aging-out process of criminal behavior is also referred to as:

spontaneous remission

Which of the following statements about age and delinquency is false?

As juvenile delinquents mature, they become less aware of the risks that accompany crime.

Early and repeated delinquency is the best predictor of:

adult criminality

Chronic recidivists made up about _____ percent of both Philadelphia cohorts in research conducted by Wolfgang and his associates.

6

In the Pennsylvania birth cohort follow-up, it was found that chronic offenders had a(n)_____ percent chance of becoming adult offenders.

80

Which of the following statements is true?

all of the above a true

According to the text, which of the following is not a childhood risk factor for persistent delinquency?

small family size

Childhood risk factors for persistent delinquency include all of the following, except:

interracial background

True or False - Manslaughter and forcible rape are examples of part II offenses.

False

True or False - Liquor law violations and drug trafficking are examples of part II offenses.

True

True or False - Research shows that the more kids watch TV, the more often they get into violent encounters.

True

True or False - Most self-report studies indicate that the number of children who break the law is far smaller than official statistics would lead us to believe.

False

True or False - According to the text, girls are more likely than boys to be arrested as runaways.

True

True or False - Delinquency rates decline with age.

True

According to choice theorists, offenders:

are rational actors who choose to crime because they believe their actions will be beneficial

According to __________________ theory, delinquency is a function of personal predispositions such as temperament, personality, hormones, or genetics.

trait

_______________________ theory views crime as a "normal" function modern living.

Routine activities

According to the concept of ________________, if offenders are punished severely, the experience will convince them not to repeat their illegal acts.

specific deterrence

Which of the following statements about specific deterrence is false?

The association between punishment and desistance is logical, and there is plenty of evidence that punitive measures alone deter future delinquency

A geographic location that is known to be the scene of repeated delinquent activity is called a:

hot spot

Research which links antisocial behavior to a person's diet draws from which theoretical perspective?

biosocial theories

Contemporary biochemical factors related to delinquency include each of the following except:

minimal brain dysfunction

Which of the following is not a symptom of ADHD?

The individual sustains interest in play activities

The _______________________ assumes that LD leads to poor school behavior which leads to frustration, negative self image, and acting out.

school failure rationale

Which of the following theories best reflects the branch of psychology that holds that the human personality is controlled by unconscious mental processes developed early in childhood?

Psychodynamic theory

A psychological condition producing mood swings between wild elation and deep depression is called:

bipolar disorder

Erik Erikson coined the term ____________________ to refer to a psychological state in which youth face inner turmoil and uncertainty about life roles.

identity crisis

__________________ hold that children will model their behavior according to the reactions they receive from others.

Behaviorists

It is estimated that the average child views ____________ TV murders before finishing elementary school.

8,000

People commit crimes when they model their behavior after others they see being rewarded for the same acts; behavior is reinforced by rewards and extinguished by punishment. Which of the following theories does this best illustrate?

Behavioral

True or False - Classical criminology suggests that delinquent acts, especially violent ones, are not rational choices but uncontrollable, irrational behaviors.

False

True or False - According to the text, delinquents do not like to travel to commit crimes.

True

True or False - Situational crime prevention aims to reduce opportunities to commit crimes by increasing the effort or the risks of criminal activity or by reducing the rewards attached to delinquent acts.

True

True or False - Police crackdowns seem to have an effective short-term strategy, but their effect begins to decay once the initial shock effect wears off.

True

True or False - People with pathological traits, such as abnormal personality, are at lower risk for crime over the life course.

False

True or False - Children with ADHD are more likely to use illicit drugs, alcohol, cigarettes in adolescence.

True

True or False - Twin studies and adoption studies provide no evidence that delinquent-producing traits may be inherited.

False

True or False - Cognitive theory contends that the choice to commit delinquent acts can be controlled by the threat of punishment; if people believe illegal behavior will result in severe sanctions, they will choose not to commit crimes.

False

Which of the following statements is false?

Stabilization of traditional social institutions typically precedes crime rate increases

Which of the following is not one of the critical social factors believed to affect delinquent behaviors presented in the text?

gender disparity

The _______________________ theories tie delinquency rates to socioeconomic conditions and cultural values; areas that experience high levels of poverty and social disorganization will also have high delinquency rates.

social structure

________________________ is the process of passing on deviant traditions and delinquent values from one from one generation to the next.

Cultural transmission

The social structure theories tie delinquency rates to all of the following except:

socialization

Relative deprivation refers to a sense of:

injustice when the poor and the rich live in close physical proximity to one another

Which of the following best describes social disorganization theory principles?

communities no longer have the capability of regulating the conduct of residents

Residents of cohesive communities develop a sense of ___________________; people know one another, develop interpersonal ties, mutual trust and a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children and help maintain public order.

collective efficacy

This source of strain outlined by Robert Agnew can be caused by the loss of girlfriend, moving to a new neighborhood, or the divorce of parents.

removal of positively valued stimuli

"Delinquency is a result of youths' desire to conform to lower-class neighborhood values that conflict with those of the larger society." This statement most closely reflects:

cultural deviance theory

There are more than ______________ youths living in poverty in the United States.

14 million

Social control theories see delinquency as the result of:

an individual having weakened bonds to family, school, and peers

If a youth continually receives negative feedback from significant others, they will interpret this image as accurate and their behavior will begin to conform to these negative expectations. This process is called a:

self-fulfilling prophecy

Which of the following theories centers around a view of society in which an elite class uses the law as a means of meeting threats to its status?

critical theory

Which of the following would best describe a prevention effort advocated by a social structure theorist?

community redevelopment including educational programs and job training

True or False - For most people, membership in the underclass is temporary often lasting a few months.

False

True or False - According to social disorganization theory, all people have the potential to become delinquents, but their bonds to conventional society prevent them from violating the law.

False

True or False - According to the text, fear of teen crime is much higher in affluent suburbs than in disorganized neighborhoods.

False

True or False - Relative deprivation occurs when pockets of extreme poverty are socially and physically isolated from the rest of society.

False

True or False - According to cultural deviance theory, obedience to the norms of their lower-class culture puts people in conflict with the norms of the dominant culture.

True

True or False - Learning theories assume that children are born good and learn to be bad.

True

True or False - Social learning theory stresses that kids learn both how to commit crimes and the attitudes needed to support the behavior.

True

True or False - According to social control theory, a person's bond to society prevents him or her from violating social rules; if the bond weakens, the person is free to commit delinquent acts.

True

True or False - Social control theory stresses that kids learn both how to commit crimes and the attitudes needed to support the behavior.

False

True or False - A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a youth receives negative feedback from significant others, the youth interprets this feedback as accurate, and his/her behavior conforms to this negative expectation.

True

True or False - In restorative justice, the community's obligation is to the victim of the crime and not to the offender.

False

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