function of the connective tissue
binding and supporting , protecting, insulting, storing and reserve fuel and trasporting substances in the body.
3 characteristic of the connective tissue
common origin:all connective tissues arise from mesenchyme (an embryotic tissue)
Degrees of vascularity: connective tissues run the gamut vascularity. Cartillage are avascular
Extracellular matrix: all other primary tissues are composed mainly of cells, but connective tissue are largely nonliving.
extracellular matrix: separates, often widely , the living cells of the tissue.
What is the main elements of the connective tissue?
ground substance,fibers and cells. Together they make up the extracellular matrix.
Ground substance structure
is the unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contain the fibers. it is composed of interstitial fluid, cell adhesion proteins and proteoglycans.
Cell adhesion proteins structure
Serve mainly as a connective tissue glue that allows connective tissue cells to attach to the matrix
connective tissue fibers structure
Provide support.Tree typer of fibers are found in the connective tissue matrix: collagen, elastic and reticular fiber
Collagen fibers is the strong and most abundant .
contructed of the fibrous protein collagen. Goes into extracellular space
are long, thin fibers that form branchs in the extracellular matrix. Are found in the skin, lungs and blood vessels walls.
Are short, fine collagenous fibers with a slightly different
Primary blast cell types by connective tissue class are:
connective tissu proper :fibrolast
Connective tissue houses other types of cell like: Fat cell (store nutrients)
White blood cells:(neutrophils, eosinophils,lymphocytes. Response to injury
Connective tissue proper
has wo subclasses, loose connective tissue and Dense connective tissue
Loose connective tissue is
Areolar, adipose, and reticular
Dense connective tissue is
dense regular, dense irregular,and elastic
Areolar connective tissue
Functions: supporting and biding other tissues
Holding body fluids
Defending against infection
Storing nutrients as fat in fat cells
The most obvious structural feature of this tissue is the loose arrangement of its fibers.
Areolar connective tissue provides a reservoir of water and salts for surrounding body tissues.
when body region is inflamed, the areolar tissue in the area soaks up excess fluids like a sponge and the afected area swells and becomes puffy, an condition called edema
Areolar connective tissue is the most widely distributed connective tissue in the body.
Is simular to areolar tissue in structure and function,but nutrients storing ability is much greater
reticular connective tissue proper:dense connec. reticular
resembles areolar connective tissue , but the only fibers in its matrix are reticular fibers, which form a delicate network along along which fibroblast called reticular cells
Adipose tissue is richly vascularized , indicating activity. without the fat stores in our adipose tissue we could not live for more than a few days without eating.
Adipose tissue is certainly abundant. it constitutes 18% of an average person's body weight
Adipose tissue helps prevent heat loss from the body
Reticular connective tissue loose
houses of retiicular fibers in a typical loose ground substance, reticular cells lie on the network
Reticular tissue function:
fibers form a soft internal skeleton(stroma) that supports other cell types including white blood cells , mast cellss an microphages
location: lymphoid organ( bone narrow , spleen)
Dense connective tissue , dense regular(proper)
Primarily parallel collagen fibers , a few elastic fibers, major cell type is the fibroblast.
Attaches muscles to bones or to muscles , attaches bones to bones,
tendons , most ligaments, apaneuroses
Dense connec. tissue dense irregular
Primarily irregularly arranged collagen fibers , some elastic fibers, fibroblast is the major cell type
withstands tension exerted in many directions, provides structural strengh
joints, dermis of the skin, submucosa of digestive tract.
Adipose tissue function
insulation, energy storage , shock absorber
dense regular tissue
fibers are in one direction allawing movement in one direction
fiber are also organized but in different direction, allowing movements in different directions
the el like substance found inside of tissue cells
type of cartilage found in the knee joint is