Microbiology Questions

48 terms by jeanie_m_nguyen 

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Chapter 1

Which of the following attributes make microorganisms ideal model systems for studying life's basic processes?

They grow to high cell densities in a short amount of time.

What is the name of the process in which cells take up nutrients from the environment and convert them into new cell structures and waste products?

Metabolism

What is the immediate environment called where a microbial population lives?

Habitat

Of the following evolutionary milestones, which occurred earlier than the Earth's oxygenation?

Origin of cyanobacteria

What are the crop plants called that form symbiotic relations with the bacteria that convert nitrogen gas into ammonia?

Legumes

Who was the amateur microscopist who first published drawings of bacteria?

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek

Which of the following discoveries by Louis Pasteur came first?
The significance of optical isomers
The role of microorganisms in fermentation
The development of a vaccine for rabies
The defeat of the theory of spontaneous generation

The significance of optical isomers

What organism was studied by Robert Koch to help him develop his famous postulates?

Bacillus anthracis

What is the method called that uses specific culture media and incubation conditions to isolate specific microorganisms?

Enrichment culture

Which of the following would generally not be considered a subdiscipline of applied microbiology?
Biotechnology
Microbial systematics
Medical microbiology
Agricultural microbiology

Microbial systematics

Which of the following cellular properties is NOT found in all cells?
Evolution
Metabolism
Growth
Differentiation

Differentiation

Consider the following two statements: Most bacterial species cause disease. Infectious diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States today

Neither statement I nor II is correct.

What would example of bioremediation of an oil spill in a marine environment?

Adding nutrients that stimulate indigenous microorganisms to degrade the oil

What is the hypothesis called by which cells originated from nonliving matter?

Spontaneous generation

What habitats is home to the largest percentage of microbial biomass on Earth?

Marine subsurface

What important biochemical process takes place within these structures found on the roots of legumes?

Nitrogen fixation

When considering the properties of all cellular life, what two ways can cells be viewed?
Differentiating entities and genetic coding devices
Biochemical catalysts and self-propelled factories
Self-propelled factories and genetic coding devices
Biochemical catalysts and genetic coding devices

Biochemical catalysts and genetic coding devices

Control of infectious diseases currently is the result of all of the following EXCEPT _________.
the use of antimicrobial agents
increased understanding of disease processes
eradication of hundreds of pathogens
improved sanitary and public health practices

Eradication of hundreds of pathogens

Who is the scientist that discovered endospores?

Cohn

A colony on a Petri plate arises from a single cell. How many cells does a typical bacterial colony contain?

70

What type of glassware was used in the experiments that settled the controversy surrounding spontaneous generation?

Swan-necked flask

Louis Pasteur developed vaccines for the following diseases EXCEPT _________.
fowl cholera
rabies
anthrax
smallpox

Smallpox

For which type of disease today is it occasionally impossible to satisfy Koch's postulates?

Lethal infectious diseases that only occur in humans
Infectious diseases that are caused by viruses
Infectious diseases that are caused by fungi
Any lethal infectious diseases

Lethal infectious diseases that only occur in humans

What model system did Robert Koch utilize to prove the causative agent of tuberculosis?

Guinea pigs

Who showed that viruses were filterable agents that were smaller than bacteria?

Beijerinck

What is chemolithotrophy?

The oxidation of inorganic compounds linked to energy conservation within a cell

Which types of organisms are the most important for the maintenance of life on Earth?

Microorganisms

Consider the following two statements: Ecosystems are influenced by microbial activities. Microbial ecosystems remain constant over time.
Only statement II is correct.
Only statement I is correct.
Both statements I and II are correct.
Neither statement I nor II is correct.

Only statement I is correct.

What characteristics was found in the earliest cellular organisms?

Anaerobic metabolism

What microorganism that Robert Hooke illustrated were first published in 1665?

Mold

Which of the following is NOT a major lineage of microbial cells?
Viridae
Eukarya
Archaea
Bacteria

Viridae

Which of the following would be an example of applied microbial research?
Studies about how cells control DNA replication
Experiments that test a hypothesis to improve wastewater treatment
Studies on the mechanisms of endospore formation
Experiments that test a hypothesis concerning cell-cell communication

Experiments that test a hypothesis to improve wastewater treatment

Which of the following would be an example of basic microbiology research?
Experiments that produce a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis
Studies on how to prevent the loss of soil fertility due to the activity of microorganisms
Studies on how cells respond to DNA damage by triggering a repair pathway
Experiments that test a hypothesis about improved cheese production

Experiments that test a hypothesis to improve wastewater treatment

What term specifically refers to RNA production?

Transcription

What is the process called when proteins are synthesized based on information from an RNA molecule?

Translation

Consider the following two statements about microorganisms and their environments: Aerobic organisms maintain oxygen in their environment. Some microorganisms consume the waste products of another population as nutrients.
Only statement I is correct.
Only statement II is correct.
Both statements I and II are correct.
Neither statement I nor II is correct.

Only statement II is correct.

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)?
Its genes were composed of RNA.
Its cells were bounded by a lipid membrane.
It used ATP as a common energy currency.
Its proteins were synthesized on ribosomes.

Its genes were composed of RNA

When does the preponderance of evidence suggest that life first arose on Earth?

3.8 × 10^9 years ago

Which of the following is NOT an important infectious disease in the developing world today?
Alzheimer's disease
Cholera
Malaria
Tuberculosis

Alzheimer's disease

What early microbiologist studied the large filamentous sulfur bacterium, later called Beggiatoa?

Ferdinand Cohn

What did proponents of spontaneous generation declare was needed for life to arise that Pasteur's swan-necked flasks accommodated?

Fresh air

What is the second step of Koch's postulates?

The organism must initially be cultivated in pure culture away from the animal body.

Who isolated in pure culture the first nitrogen-fixing bacterium?

Winogradsky

What plant-like characteristic do chemolithotrophs possess?

They are autotrophs.

Which of the following is NOT a new subdiscipline that has been created from the study of genomes?
Ribosomics
Metabolomics
Transcriptomics
Proteomics

Ribosomics

The cell's genome is stored in

the nucleus or nucleoid

Microbial ecology is the study of

microorganisms in their natural environments

A Pasteur flask has a/an

swan neck to prevent particulate matter from getting into the main body of the flask

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