circulatory system study Guide

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What is the role of the circulatory system

The role of the circulatory system is to bring in the o2 and the nutrients for the cells and tissues of the body and to take out the co2 and the metabolic waste.

What does the circulatory system deliver to cells

it delivers o2 and many different nutrients

what does the circulatory system pick up from cells

it picks up co2 and metabolic waste.

which vessels take blood away from the heart

the arteries

which vessels take blood into the heart

the veins

what are the two circuits of the circulatory system and how are they different

pulmonary and systemic; pulmonary circuit takes blood from the heart to the lungs and the systemic circuit take blood from the heart to everywhere else in the body.

which side of the heart handles o2 blood (oxygenated)

left side

which side of the heart handles co2 blood (deoxgenated)

right side

how are arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins connected

they are all blood vessels that transport blood all over the body. As blood flows through the body it flows from arteries to capillaries to veins. Arteries and venules are smaller extensions of arteries and veins that carry the blood. All of these are connected to connective tissues.

what is the advantage of having a 4 chambered heart

the 4 chambers of the heart allow for compartmentaliation and and an organized direction of blood flow throughout the body. This organization both divides oxygenated blood from deoxgenated blood and allows the heart to pump efficiently.

what is the advantage of having two fully separated sides of the heart

this organization both divides oxygenated blood from deoxygenated blood and allows the heart to pump efficiently.

What are the characteristics of arteries, veins and capillaries

they are all blood vessels. Arteries are the large thick vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues in the body. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels and are very thin, and lastly veins carry blood from the tissues of the bodies back to the heart

which is the only vessel type that allows for diffusion of nutrients, gases and waste

the capillaries

which vessel type experiences the highest blood pressures

arteries

which vessel type contains valves. why are valves important and what do they do.

veins. the valves are important because they prevent the backflow of the blood and air

which vessel type of the thickest

the arteries

which vessel type has smallest diameter

capillaries

what is the inner lining of all vessels called

endothelium

which is the only artery in the body to carry deoxygenated? why is this then called an artery and not a vein.

pulmonary artery. It carries the blood to the lungs

which is the only vein in the body to carry oxygenated blood

pulmonary vein

why are vessel valves so important and what do they do

they prevent the backflow of the blood and air.

which vessel type is most abundant in our bodies (by length)

veins

smaller branches of arteries are called what

artereles

smaller branches of veins are called what

venules

what is plasma

plasma is about 90% water and it makes up 55% of the blood volume. it is made up of dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, hormones, waste product, and plasma proteins.

what are the components of plasma

made up of dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, waste product, and plasma proteins. 90% water

what are the 3 major blood cell types

red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

which blood cell types live for only 3 months

red blood cells

which blood cells do not have a nucleus

red blood cells

which blood cells form clots

platelets

which blood cells carry out immune defenses (immune cells)

white blood cells

which blood cells are packed with hemoglobin

red blood cells

which blood cells are fragments of cells (fragment off of large cells called megakaryocytes

platelets

which blood cells have member that produce antibodies

white blood cells

which blood cells form a sticky clump with the protein fibrin

platelets

which blood cells transport oxygen

red blood cells

what is the lymph system and how is it related to the circulatory system

a network of vessels nodes, and an organ called the lymphatic system collects the fluid that is lost by the blood and returns it back to the circulatory system.

know the pathway into, through, and out of the heart backwards and forwards

the path of the blood in the heart is oxygen poor blood goes through the superior and inferior vena cave, down through the right atrium, to the right ventricle, past the pulmonary valve, through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs. Now oxygenated blood passes though the pulmonary veins, to the left atrium, past the mitral valve to the left ventricle, out through the aorta to the body

what veins bring co2 blood into the heart (from the body and from the head)

the superior and inferior vena cava

which chamber does co2 blood first enter

the right atrium

what purpose of the valves

the valves prevent the back flow of different amounts of air and blood

which chamber receives o2 blood from the lungs

the left atrium

why are the ventricles more muscular chambers than the atria

the ventricles are more strong because they have to pump the blood the farthest and with the most force. for example the left ventricle must pump the blood with the most force for it to reach all parts of the body

which is the largest and and most muscular chamber of the heart

the left ventrical

which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the right ventricle to the right atrium

the tricuspid valve

which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle

the pulmonary valve

which vessel takes blood to the lung.

pulmonary ateries

which returns blood from lungs back to heart

pulmonary arteries

which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the aortic arch to the left ventricle

the pulmonary vein

which valve prevents the backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium

aoric valve

which vessel takes o2 blood from the heart to the rest of the body

bicuspid valve

which vessel take o2 blood from the heart to the head

aorta and carotid artery

what is the function of the aortic arch

funnels blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.

what is the SA node, and what does it do

it is the pacemaker and initiates electrical currents from the heart to the lungs

what is the AV node and what does it do

initiates the ventricle contraction

atherosclerosis

hardening in the arteries. chlorsetoral, saturated fats, and calcium form along the arteries walls. Can trigger clotting of the platelets called a thrombus which blocks blood flow. It can cause a heart attack and a stroke.

myocardial infarction

a heart attack caused by a blockage in one of the three arteries

hypertension

high blood pressure due to atherosclerosis, the heart tries to pump hader to get all of the blood through the small arteries this is an increase in pressure

what is normal blood pressure

120/80

what do the two numbers of blood pressure represent what are they called

the systolic and diastolic. Systolic is the force felt in the arteries when the ventricles conract. The second number the diastolic is the force of the blood felt in the arteries when the ventricles relax.'

how is blood pressure measured

on a sphygmonometer

what disease involves a weakening of the artery wall and ballooning (or Bulge) that could rupture if not treated

aneurysm

varicose veins.

when the blood pool in the vein and the valves are defective. Women are more susceptible

what is sickle cell anemia.

a genetic disease where the red blood cells are in the shape of a sickle.

what gene is mutated in sickle cell anemia.

hemoglobin gene

what disease are sickle cells resistant to

malaria

what disease is caused by defective heart valves

heart murmur

what is a stroke

when a thrombus occurs inside of the head and the blood flow is blocked to one aspect of the brain

leukemia

cancer of stem cells in bone marrow that make white blood cells

antigens

a substance that triggers an immune response

antibodies

it immoblizes foreign things and destoys pathogens which are a disease causing ages

agglutination

the clumping of bacteria, red blood cells, or other cells due to the introduction of an antibody

what are the 4 major blood groups

A, AB, B , O

what is the blood group subtype (+ or -)

+ or- is a delineation from the type of R factor present

how blood can be assigned

O is universal donor. Any blood type can receive O. AB blood is the universal acceptor. It can receive type A, B, or O

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