Medical Terminology Chp 5

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Medical Terminology Chp 5 Cardiovascular system

angi/o

vessel (usually blood or lymph)

aort/o

aorta; largest artery

arteri/o

of or pertaining to an artery

ather/o

plaque or fatty substance

brady-

Abnormally slow

cardi/o

pertaining to the heart

-crasia

mixture or blending

-ernia

blood, blood condition

erythr/o

combining form for red

hem/o hemat/o

blood, pertaining to the blood

leuk/o

combining form for white

phleb/o

combining form:
vein

tachy-

fast, rapid

thromb/o

BLOOD CLOT

ven/o

combining form for vein

ACE inhibitor

blocks the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension

anemia

a deficiency of red blood cells

aneurysm

a cardiovascular disease characterized by a sac-like widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall

angina

a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart

angioplasty

an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery

anticoagulant

slows coagulation and prevents new clots from forming

aplastic anemia

a normocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by the failure of bone marrow to produce red blood cells

arrhythmia

any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat

atherectomy

surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery

atheroma

a deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall

atherosclerosis

the most common form of CVD; a disease characterized by plaques along the inner walls of the arteries.

atrial fibrillation

occurs when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall

automated external defibrillator

electronic equipment that automatically samples the heart's electrical rhythms and when necessary, externally shocks the heart to restore a normal cardiac rhythm

beta-blocker

Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.

blood dyscrasia

any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood

bradycardia

slow heart rate, usually below 60 beats per minute

cardiac arrest

The heart and breathing stop suddenly and without warning

cardiac catheterization

procedure where a catheter is inserted into an artery and guided into the heart; may be used for diagnosis of blockages or treatment

cardiomyopathy

a general term for disease of the heart muscle, such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart muscle caused by excessive consumption of alcohol)

carotid endarterectomy

incision and coring of the lining of the carotid artery to clear a blockage caused by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque or a clot; an open procedure used to treat patients who are at risk for stroke

cholesterol

a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods

chronic venous insufficiency (CVI)

a condition in which venous circulation is inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves

coronary thrombosis

the closing off of a vessel that feeds the heart muscle by a stationary clot, or thrombus

defibrillation

application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm

diuretic

a drug that causes the body to lose fluids; not effective for loss of body fat

electrocardiogram (ECG)

a record of the electrical activity of the heart that, if abnormal, may indicate heart disease

embolism

occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus (a loose clot or air bubble or other particle)

embolus

A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.

endocarditis

inflammation of the lining of the heart

erythrocytes

Red blood cells that transport oxygen

hemoglobin

Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells

hemolytic anemia

a condition o fan inadequate number of circulating red blood cells due to the premature destruction of red blood cells by the spleen

hemostasis

surgical procedure of stopping the flow of blood (as with a hemostat)

ischemic heart disease

a group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart

leukemia

cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells

leukocytes

white blood cells, or WBC, form in the bone marrow and are part of the body's nonspecific defenses and the immune system

leukopenia

an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count

megaloblastic anemia

blood disorder characterized by anemia in which red blood cells are larger than normal., a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal

myelodysplastic syndrome

a group of bone marrow disorders that are characterized by the insufficient production of one or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of the bone marrow

myocardial infarction

destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle

orthostatic hypotension

decrease in blood pressure related to positional or postural changes from lying to sitting or standing positions

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

an episode that begins and ends abruptly, during which there are very rapid and regular heartbeats that originate in the atrium

pericardium

a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart

pernicious anemia

a macrocytic-normochromic type of anemia characterized by an inadequate supply of vitamin B12, causing red blood cells to become large, varied in shape, and reduced in number

phlebitis

inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)

Raynaud's phenomenon

a peripheral arterial occlusive disease in which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress.

septicemia

a systemic disease caused by the infection of microorganisms and their toxins in the circulating blood

sickle cell anemia

A genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape

tachycardia

abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)

thallium stress test (TST)

performed to evaluate how well blood flows through the coronary arteries of the heart muscle during exercise

thrombocytopenia

a bleeding disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood, which impairs the clotting process

thrombolytic

a kind of pharmaceutical that can break up clots blocking the flow of blood to the heart muscle

thrombotic occlusion

the blocking of an artery by a thrombus

thrombus

a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin

transfusion reaction

a serious, and potentially fatal, complication of a blood transfusion in which a severe immune response occurs because the patient's blood and the donated blood do not match

valvulitis

inflammation of a valve (especially of a cardiac valve as a consequence of rheumatic fever)

varicose veins

abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs

ventricular fibrillation

fibrillation of heart muscles resulting in interference with rhythmic contractions of the ventricles and possibly leading to cardiac arrest

ventricular tachycardia

a very rapid heartbeat that begins within the ventricles

cardiovascular

pertaining to the heart and blood vessels (cardi/o means heart, vascul means blood vessels, and -ar means pertaining to)

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