AP Human Geography Chapter 14

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AP Human Geography Chapter 14 - Resources Rubenstein edition 10

Acid Deposition

Sulfur oxides and nitrogen, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere - where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid - and return to Earth's surface

Acid Precipitation

Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, sown , or fog.

Active Solar Energy Systems

Solar energy systems that collect energy through the use of physical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors

Air pollution

Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.

Animate Power

Power supplied by people or animals.

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)

Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution.

Biodiversity

The number of species within a specific habitat

Biomass Fuel

Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste

Breeder reactor

A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium

Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)

A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers

Conservation

The sustainable use and management of a natural resource through consuming it at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced

Ferrous

Metals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel

Fission

The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy

Geothermal Energy

Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.

Greenhouse Effect

Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.

Hydroelectric power

Power generated from moving water

Inanimate Power

Power supplied by machines

Nonferrous

Metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel

Nonrenewable Energy

A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.

Ozone

A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 km above Earth's surface

Passive solar energy systems

Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices

Photochemical smog

An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions

Photovoltaic cell

Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.

Pollution

Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate

Potential Reserve

The amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist

Preservation

Maintenance of a resource in its present condition with as little human impact as possible.

Proven reserve

The amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits

Radiation waste

Materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, the Materials must be safely stored for thousands of years

Recycling

The Separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material.

Renewable Energy

A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.

Resource

A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access and is socially acceptable to use.

Sanitary Landfill

A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin

Sustainable development

The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development

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