Sensation & Perception Chapter 1, 2, 3 Definitions

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Definitions in Chapters 1-3 of Psyc-3115 Textbook Sensation and Perception 3rd ed. by Wolfe, J.M. et al. (2012) and augmented with information provided in class by Professor Goolkasian.

The ability to detect a stimulus and, perhaps, to turn that detection into a private experience is called?

Sensation - "Early Stage of acquiring information from the environment"

The act of giving meaning to a detected sensation is called?

Perception - (from the Latin perceptio, percipio) - "We organize and interpret the sensory data"

In philosophy, a private conscious experience of sensation or perception is called?

quale or (pl. qualia)

The idea that the only thing that exists is matter, and that all things, including the mind and consciousness, are the results of interaction between bits of matter is called?

Materialism - (Material = Matter)

The idea that the mind exists as a property of all matter - that is, that all matter has consciousness is known as?

Panpsychism - (pan, meaning "throughout" or "everywhere", and psyche, meaning "soul")

The idea that the MIND has an existence separate from the material world of the BODY is known as?

Dualism - (Mind + Body; from the Latin word duo meaning "two")

The science of defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological (subjective) events is called?

Psychophysics

The minimum distance at which two stimuli (e.g., two simultaneous touches) are just perceptible as separate is know as the?

Two-Point Touch Threshold

The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, or the minimum change in a stimulus that enables it to be correctly judged as different from reference stimulus is known as?

Just Noticeable Difference (JND) or Difference Threshold

The constant of proportionality in Weber's Law is known as?

Weber Fraction

What is the principle describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the just noticeable difference (JND) is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus?

Weber's Law

What is the principle describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation increases proportionally to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity?

Fechner's Law - [(S=k log R) S=Psychological Sensation= Physical Stimulus Level (log R) x by Constant (k)]

What term describes the minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50% of the time?

The Absolute Threshold - Key Word ABSOLUTE

A psychophysical method in which many stimuli, ranging from rarely to almost always perceivable (or rarely to almost always perceivable different from a reference stimulus), are presented one at a time. Participants respond to each presentation: "yes/no" "same/different," and so on is called?

The Method of Constant Stimuli - Key Word CONSTANT

The term used to describe: "1. In hearing, a waveform for which variation as a function of time is a sine function. Also called Pure Tone. 2. In vision, a pattern for which variation in a property like brightness or color as a function of space is a sine function." is called?

The Sine Wave

The time (or space) required for one cycle of a repeating waveform is called?

The Period or Wavelength

The term that describes, 1. In vision, the relative position of a grating 2. In hearing, the relative timing of a sine wave is called?

The Phase

The term associated with an analyses that permit modern perception scientists to better understand how complex sounds such as music and speech, complex head motions, and complex images such as objects and scenes can be decomposed into a set of simpler singles is called?

The Fourier Analysis (Termed from the French mathematician Joseph Fourier)

The number of cycles of a grating per unit of visual angle (usually specified in cycles per degree) is called?

Spatial Frequency

The number of pairs of dark and bright bars per degree of visual angle is called?

Cycles per Degree (CPD)

The twelve pairs of nerves (one on each side of the body) that originate in the brain stem and reach sense organs and muscles through openings in the skull (Foramen Magnum) are called?

The Cranial Nerves (There are 12 Cranial Nerves; 12 pairs of cranial nerves).

The junction between neurons that permits information transfer is called?

The Synapse - (Greek sunapsis means point of contact - although, in actuality, the synapse does not "contact")

A chemical substance used in the communication at the synapse is called?

Neurotransmitter

What is created when the membrane of a neuron permits sodium ions to rush into a cell, thus increasing the voltage. Then, very quickly afterword, potassium flows out of the cell, bringing the voltage back to resting voltage (-70). Also, this process occurs along the length of the axon until the _____ reaches the axon terminal?

An Action Potential

What is the technique that uses many electrodes on the scalp, measures electrical activity from populations of many neurons in the brain?

Electroencephalography (EEG) - Electro| encephalo| graphy

A measure of electrical activity from a subpopulation of neurons in response to particular stimuli that requires averaging many EEG recordings is called?

Event-Related Potential (ERP)

What is the technique, similar to an electroencephalography, that measures changes in the magnetic activity across populations of many neurons in the brain?

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) - Magneto | encephalo | graphy

What is the imaging technology that uses x-rays to create images of slices through volumes of material (e.g., the human body)?

Computed Tomography (CT)

What is the imaging technology that uses the responses of atoms to strong magnetic fields to form images of structures like the brain? The method can be adapted to measure activity in the brain, as well.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

What is the technique that is a variant of magnetic resonance imaging that makes it possible to measure localized patterns of activity in the brain? Hint: Activated neurons provoke increased blood flow, which can be quantified by measuring changes in of the response of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood to strong magnetic fields.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

The ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin that permits the localization of brain neurons that are most involved in a task is called?

Blood Oxygen Level - Dependent Signal (AKA BOLD)

What is the imaging technique that enables us to define locations in the brain where neurons are especially active by measuring the metabolism of brain cells using safe radioactive isotopes?

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

What are receptor cells? (Professor Review Question or Statement)

A "specialized neuron" that converts outside energy into a chemical response.

What is sensory transduction? (Professor Review Question or Statement)

The process by which the physical stimulus is transformed into a neural impulse

How is sensory data acquired? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Receptors and Sensory Transduction

How is sensory data interpreted? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Knowledge & Experience

Why study perception? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Understand human responses to environmental events, design devices to maximize human performance, and assist people with sensory impairment.

Path of a Stimulus from the Environment to the brain. (Professor Power Point Slides)

Stimulus from Environment --> Receptor --> Nerve Fiber --> Dendrite or Soma of Neuron

The _____ is the building block of the brain? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Neuron

The nervous system consists of two major divisions. What are those 2 divisions? (Professor Power Point Slides)

The Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of these two major divisions. (Professor Power Point Slides)

The Spinal Cord and the Brain

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of these two major divisions. (Professor Power Point Slides)

The autonomic and somatic. Autonomic: Self-Regulate actions of Organs and Glands Somatic: Voluntary Movements of Skeletal Muscles

The Automatic System of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) are separated into the _____ and the _____. (Professor Power Point Slides)

Sympathetic (Energizing), Parasympathetic (Calming)

Perception does not depend only on energy and events in the world. It depends on the perceiver. (Professor Power Point Slides)

...

Perceptual systems are sensitive to change in the world around us. We adapt to constant stimuli. (Professor Power Point Slides)

...

By measuring the speed and timing of neurons firing, we can learn how info is encoded and transmitted from sense thru higher levels of the brain. (Professor Power Point Slides)

...

The synapse can be both _____ and Inhibitory. (Professor Review Question or Statement)

Excitatory

An oscillation that travels through a medium by transferring energy from one particle or point to another without causing any permanent displacement of the medium is called a?

Wave

A quantum of visible light or other form of electromagnetic radiation demonstrating both particle and wave properties is called a?

Photon

To take up light, noise, or energy and not transmit it at all is known as?

Absorption

To disperse light in an irregular fashion is know as?

Scattering

To redirect something that strikes a surface - especially light, sound, or heat - usually back toward its point of origin is known as?

Reflection

To convey something (like light) from one place or thing to another is called?

Transmission (To Transmit)

When, "1. To alter the course of a wave of energy that passes into something from another medium, as water does to light entering it from air. 2. To measure the degree of refraction in a lens or eye." we refer to this process as?

Refract or Refraction

The transparent or "window" into the eyeball is known as the?

Cornea

Allowing light to pass through with no interruption, so that objects on the other side can be clearly seen is know as being?

Transparent

The watery fluid in the anterior chamber of the eye is called?

Aqueous Humor

The lens inside the eye enables the changing of focus is called?

Crystalline Lens (Lens)

The dark, circular opening (when normal) at the center of the iris in the eye, where light enters the eye is called?

Pupil

The colored part of the eye, consisted of a muscular diaphragm surrounding the pupil and regulating the light entering the eye by expanding and contracting the pupil is called the?

Iris

The transparent fluid that fills the vitreous chamber in the posterior of the eye is called?

Vitreous Humor

A light-sensitive membrane in the back of the eye that contains rods and cones, which receive an image from the lens and send it to the brain through the optic nerve is called?

Retina

The process by which the eye changes its focus (in which the lens gets fatter as gaze is directed toward near objects) is called?

Accommodation

Literally "old sight". The loss of near vision because of insufficient accommodation is called?

Presbyopia - Pres | by | opia

An opacity of the crystalline lens is called?

Cataract

The condition in which there is no refraction error, because the refractive power of the eye is perfectly matched to the length of the eyeball is called?

Emmetropia - (from Greek emmetros, "well-proportioned" or "fitting") Emme | tr | opia

Nearsightedness, a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused in front of the retina and distant objects cannot be seen sharply is called?

Myopia

Farsightedness, a common condition in which light entering the eye is focused behind the retina and accommodation is required in order to see near objects clearly is called?

Hyperopia

A visual defect caused by the unequal curving of one or more of the refractive surfaces of the eye, usually the cornea is called?

Astigmatism

To convert from one form of energy to another (e.g., from light to neural electrical energy, or from mechanical movement to neural electrical energy) is called?

Transduce or Transduction

The back layer of the retina - what the eye doctor sees through an opthalmoscope is called?

The Fundus

A light sensitive receptor in the retina is called?

A Photoreceptor

A photoreceptor specialized for night vision is called?

A Rod

A photoreceptor specialized for daylight vision, fine visual acuity, and color is called?

A Cone

In reference to the retina, consisting of two parts: the rods and cones, which operate under different conditions is called?

Duplex

The part of a photoreceptor that contains photopigment molecules is called the?

Outer Segment

The part of a photoreceptor that lies between the outer segment and the cell nucleus is called the?

Inner Segment

The location where axons terminate at the synapse for transmission of information by the release of a chemical transmitter is called the?

Synaptic Terminal

The light-catching part of the visual pigments of the retina is called the?

Chromophore

The visual pigment found in rods is called?

Rhodopsin - Rhod | opsin

A photopigment that is sensitive to ambient light is called?

Melanopsin - Melan | opsin

Activation by light is called?

Photoactivation

An increase in membrane potential such that the inner membrane surface becomes more negative than the outer membrane surface is called?

Hyperpolarization

An electrical potential that can very continuously in amplitude is called?

Graded Potential

The distance between the retinal image and the fovea is called?

Eccentricity

What is the eye disease associated with aging that effects the macula. It gradually destroys sharp central vision, making it difficult to read, drive, and recognize faces. There are two forms of this disease: Wet and Dry.

Aging-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

The central part of the retina that has a high concentration of cones is called?

Macula

This area is a small pit, near the center of the macula, that contains the highest concentration of cones, and no rods. It is the portion of the retina that produces the highest visual acuity and serves as the point of fixation. What is this area called?

The Fovea

A blind spot in the visual field is called?

Scotoma

A specialized retinal cell that contacts both photoreceptor and bipolar cells is called a?

Horizontal Cell

Antagonistic neural interaction between adjacent regions of the retina is called?

Lateral Inhibition

A retinal cell found in the inner synaptic layer that makes synaptic contacts with bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and other cells of it's own kind are called?

Amacrine Cell

A retinal cell that synapses with either rods or cones (not both) and with horizontal cells, and then passes the signals on to ganglion cells is called?

Bipolar Cell

A bipolar retinal cell whose processes are spread out to receive input from multiple cones is called?

A Diffuse Bipolar Cell

The ability to perceive via the sense organs and extreme responsiveness to radiation, especially to light of a specific wavelength and has the ability to respond to transmitted signals is termed?

Sensitivity

A measure of the finest detail that can be resolved by the eyes is called?

Visual Acuity

A small bipolar cell in the central retina that receives input from a single cone is called?

Midget Bipolar Cell

A bipolar cell that responds to an increase in light captured by the cones is called?

ON bipolar Cell

A bipolar cell that responds to an decrease in light captured by the cones is called?

OFF bipolar Cell

A retinal cell that receives visual information from photoreceptors via two intermediate neuron types (bipolar cells and amacrine cells) and transmits information to the brain and midbrain is called?

Ganglion Cell

A small ganglion cell that receives excitatory input from single midget bipolar cells in the central retina and feeds the parvocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nucleus is called?

P Ganglion Cell

A ganglion cell resembling a little umbrella that receives excitatory input from diffuse bipolar cells and feeds the magnocellular layer of the lateral geniculate nucleus is called?

M Ganglion Cell

A neuron located between the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus is called?

Koniocellular Cell (AKA a K-cell)

The region on the retina in which visual stimuli influence a neuron's firing rate is called?

Receptive Field

A cell that depolarizes in response to an increase in light intensity in its receptive-field center is called?

ON-Center Cell

A cell that depolarizes in response to a decrease in light intensity in its receptive-field center is called?

OFF-Center Cell

An acoustic, electrical, electronic, or optical device, instrument, computer program, or neuron that allows the passage of some frequencies or digital elements and blocks the passage of others is called?

A Filter

The difference in luminance between an object and the background, or between lighter and darker parts of the same object is called?

Contrast

A progressive degeneration of the retina that affects night vision and peripheral vision. It commonly runs in families and can be caused by defects in a number of genes that have recently been identified. This condition is known as?

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP); (Extra Info) Known Symptomatology: Night blindness or nyctalopia, tunnel vision (no peripheral vision), peripheral vision (no central vision), latticework vision, aversion to glare, slow adjustment from dark to light environments and vice versa, blurring of vision, poor color separation, and extreme tiredness.

Human vision can see 1/70th of the light spectrum. What range, or wavelength, can human beings see light? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Between 350-700 nm (nanometers)

The number of photons per unit of time is called? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Candlepower; (Extra Info) - (abbreviated as cp) is an obsolete unit measuring luminous intensity, equal to 0.981 candela. It expresses levels of light intensity in terms of the light emitted by a candle of specific size and constituents.

Candlepower/Distance Squared is called? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Illuminance; (Extra Info) - It is a measure of how much the incident light illuminates the surface, wavelength-weighted by the luminosity function to correlate with human brightness perception.

Illuminance X Reflectance is called? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Luminance; (Extra Info) - It describes the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle.

List some of the main structures of the human eye. (Professor Power Point Slides)

Iris, Pupil, Cornea, Lens, Ciliary Muscle, Vitreous Humor, Fovea, Macula, Blind Spot, Optic Nerve, Retina (Rods and Cones)

The pupil responds by constricting in bright illumination. What is the average mm size of the pupil when fully constricted? (Professor Power Point Slides)

2 mm

The pupil responds by dilating in dark illumination. What is the average mm size of the pupil when fully dilating? (Professor Power Point Slides)

8 mm

The fovea sits at what optic axis degree? (Professor Power Point Slides)

0 Degrees (Zero)

Close to the fovea on either side there are more _____ than ____? (Professor Power Point Slides)

Rods, Cones

List the 3 main characteristics of Cone Vision. (Professor Power Point Slides)

High resolution, color vision, photopic or daylight illumination

List the 3 main characteristics of Rod Vision. (Professor Power Point Slides)

Scotopic or night illumination, poor resolution, light sensitivity

The condition of the eye that causes occlusion of the lens is called?

Cataracts

The condition of the eye that causes the lens to become rigid is called?

Presbyopia

The _____ is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.

The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek, "crossing", from the Greek 'to mark with an X') is the part of the brain where the optic nerves (CN II) partially cross.

The _____ is the primary relay center for visual information received from the retina of the eye.

The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is the primary relay center for visual information received from the retina of the eye. The LGN is found inside the thalamus of the brain.

The _____ is a collection of axons from relay neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus carrying visual information to the visual cortex (also called striate cortex).

The Optic Radiations (also known as the geniculo-calcarine tract or as the geniculostriate pathway) is a collection of axons from relay neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus carrying visual information to the visual cortex (also called striate cortex) along the calcarine fissure.

Name the 4 characteristics of P Ganglion Cells. (Professor Power Point Slides)

More numerous, small receptive field, sustained firing, info about contrast

Name the 4 characteristics of M Ganglion Cells. (Professor Power Point Slides)

Larger cells, large receptive fields, transient response, sensitive to low light

What is a Mach Band?

Mach bands is an optical illusion named after the physicist Ernst Mach. It exaggerates the differences between neighboring areas of slightly differing shades of gray along the boundaries, thus enhancing edge-detection by the human visual system.

The stimulus for vision is light from _____ to _____ nm? (Professor Review Question or Statement)

350-750 nm according to review. However, Power Point Slides states "350-700 nm" and book states "400-750 nm"?

What is the most important layer (the 3rd innermost layer) of the eye? (Professor Review Question or Statement)

The Retina

The first layer of the retina is where we find the receptor cells. What are the receptor cells for the sense of vision? (Professor Review Question or Statement)

Rods and Cones

Receptive field studies try to map the area on the retina that when stimulated - use the technique of single cell recordings (off or on response)

...

The difference in luminance between an object and the background, or between lighter and darker parts of the same object is known as?

Contrast

The _____ pathway travels dorsally and is where the analysis of motion and spatial relations is located.

The "Where?" Pathway or Stream

The _____ pathway travels ventrally and is where the analysis of form and color is located.

The "What?" Pathway or Stream

The smallest spatial detail that can be resolved is called?

Acuity

A structure in the thalamus, part of the midbrain, that receives input from the retinal ganglion cells and has input and output connections to the visual cortex.

The LGN (Lateral Geniculate Nucleus)

Either of the bottom two neuron-containing layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus, the cells of which are physically larger than those in the top four layers.

Magnocellular Layer

Any of the top four neuron-containing layers of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, the cells of which are physically smaller than those in the bottom two layers.

Parvocellular Layer

A neuron located between the magnocellular and parvocellular layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus.

Koniocellular Cell

A term referring to the opposite side of the body and is used largely in reference to brain orientation.

Contralateral

A term referring to the same side of the body and is used largely in reference to brain orientation.

Ipsilateral

The orderly mapping of the world in the lateral geniculate nucleus and the visual cortex.

Topographical Mapping

The area of the cerebral cortex of the brain that receives direct inputs from the lateral geniculate nucleus, as well as feedback from other brain areas, and is responsible for processing visual information.

Primary Visual Cortex, V1, Area 17, or Striate Cortex

The amount of cortical area (usually specified in mm) devoted to a specific region (e.g., 1 degree)

Cortical Magnification

Hubel and Wiesel's most fundamental discovery was that the receptive fields of striate cortex neurons are not circular, as they are in the retina and LGN. Rather, they are elongated. As a result, they respond much more vigorously to bars, lines, edges, and gratings than to round spots of light.

...

A cortical neuron with clearly defined excitatory and inhibitory regions is called a?

Simple Cell - An example: An edge Detector and Stripe Detector from only one position ("Simple")

A neuron whose receptive-field characteristics cannot be easily predicted by mapping with spots of light is called a?

Complex Cell - This type of cell, for example, will respond to a stripe presented anywhere within its receptive field ("Complex")

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