All forms of life share common properties.
Order, Reproduction, Growth & Development, Energy Processing, Response to Environment, Regulation, and Evolutionary Adaptation.
Life has a highly ordered structure. Living cells are the basis of this complex organization.
Organisms reproduce their own kind.
Growth and Development
DNA dictates the pattern of growth and development in a given organism.
When we eat food, we utilize that as energy for daily functioning, growth, and development.
Response to Environment
All organisms respond to environmental stimuli.
There are many methods different organisms do to maintain a safe homeostasis.
Organisms adapt over time to better suit their environment, as the successful members of a species pass down their DNA onto following generations.
Life's Hierarchy of Oganization
Why are cells considered the basic units of life?
They are the lowest level on life's hierarchy of organization that can carry out all the activities required for life. All organisms are composed of cells.
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea. First to evolve.
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on the study of the interactions among the system's parts.
Explain how photosynthesis functions in both the cycling of chemical nutrients and the flow of energy in an ecosystem.
Photosynthesis uses light to convert CO2 and water into energy-rich food. This is how most organisms get their nutrients and chemical energy.
The chemical substance of genes.
The units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring. Genes are grouped into longer molecules called chromosomes and control the activities of the cell.
3 Domains of Lfie
Domain Bacteria, Domain Archaea, and Domain Eukarya.
Prokaryotic. Live in Earth's extreme environments.
Provide food for a particular ecosystem.
Eat plants and other animals.
Small animals, fungi, and bacteria that decompose waste and remains of dead organisms; act as recyclers
An ecosystem gains and loses energy constantly.
passed through a series of consumers, eventually decomposes.
Life first evolved in water.All living organisms require water. Universal solvent.
Anything that occupies space and has mass. Matter is composed of chemical elements.
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances. There are 92 elements in nature.
Elements in the Humans
65% Oxygen, 18.5% Carbon, 9.5% Hydrogen, 3.3% Nitrogen; 3.7% calcium, phosphorous, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium. >.01% other trace elements.
A substance containing 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio. More common than pure elements.
Smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element. Consist of 3 subatomic particles: proton, neutron, and electron.
= #of protons. Atoms of the same element will always have the same atomic number. Isotopes will have a different mass #.
The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
Atoms that vary in their # of neutrons but have the same # of protons.
[Group 8] non-reactive; already have 8 electrons.
Join atoms into molecules via electron sharing. It is the strongest type of chemical bond.
Attraction between ions of opposite charge. i.e. NaCl
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
In molecules of only 1 element, the pull between them is equal.
Polar Covalent Bond
Water has atoms with different electronegativities. Oxygen attracts more shared electrons than hydrogen. Water is a polar molecule.
Weak bonds important in chemistry (and life).
The tendency of molecules to stick to others of the same kind. Much stronger for H2O than other liquids. Related to surface tension.
The tendency of 2 kinds of molecules to stick together.b
A measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid. Hydrogen bonds give water a strong surface tension.
The energy associated with movement of atoms and molecules in matter. Heat is released when hydrogen bonds form.
Measures the intensity of heat.
A compound that releases H2 into a solution.
A compound that accepts H2.
Describes how acidic or basic a solution is. Ranges from 0-14; 0=most acidic, 14= most basic.