CSS Chapter 3: Gin and Other Flavored Spirits

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Chapter 3

What three (3) factors determine a Gin Style?

1. Distillation
2. Botanical Recipes
3. Maturation

Where can Gin be produced?

Anywhere

Define Gin:

Flavored spirits obtained by redistilling a high-proof spirit primarily with juniper, with the option of additional flavoring agents.

What is the minimum ABV for Gin?

40%, which is the same for Vodka

What base materials can be used in Gin production?

Any, there are no restrictions on this.

Name the two (2) types of Gin defined by the U.S. Federals Standards:

1. Distilled Gin
2. Compound Gin

When and who first developed the first gin, and for what purpose?

1. In the 1600's
2. Dr. Sylvius (Franciscus de le Boe)
3. As a inexpensive medicinal oil for bladder and kidney ailments

Who or what countries used the following names for Gin?
1. Genievre
2. Genever
3. Hollands
4. Schiedam

1. France, the original name, which means Juniper Berry
2. Dutch
3. Holland
4. Holland

Where does the term "Dutch Courage" come from?

The English developed this synonym for Gin after fighting with their allies, the Dutch in battle. The spirit was consumed for fortification.

Why did the "Gin Craze" develop? (2)

1. During the reign of Queen Anne, between 1702 - 1714, Excise tax on English distilled spirits was lowered
2. England allowed unlicensed production of gin

When was the "Gin Craze" and how much did consumption increase?

Between 1720 - 1751 consumption of gin tripled, largely affecting the working class poor.

What is a Dram Shop?

The precursor to the modern bar. Sold gin to either take home or consume standing up.

How did England address the "Gin Craze"?

Several Gin Acts were imposed that required a license to sell gin and instituted taxation.

What style of Gin was most popular during the "Gin Craze"?

Old Tom Gin

What played the most significant role the shift to quality Gin production?

The invention of the Continuous Still, otherwise known as the Patent or Coffey Still, during the 18th century.

What style of Gin was created as a result of the introduction of the Continuous Still?

London Dry Gin

How did the consumption of Gin spread to other continents?

The English

What is bitter quinine used for?

Blended with Gin to create a gin and tonic to control malaria

What is "bathtub gin"?

Compound gin.

Which spirit was adopted by US society first, Vodka or Gin?

Gin

What base material is the mash made from in a traditional Gin?

Cereal grains

What ABV is the gin wash distilled to?
What is the exception?

95% ABV
Genever is taken off at a much lower level

What is Juniper and what aromas does it contribute?

1. Berries from the evergreen tree.
2. Fresh pine aroma

What is the second most-used botanical?
From what plant is it derived?
What are its aromatics?

Coriander (seed) from the Cilantro plant
Peppery and Spicy character

What aromatics does Angelica have?

earthy and woody character

What aromatics does Orris root have?

Violets or floral notes

What are the two (2) primary sets of regulations that govern the production of gin?

1. United States
2. EU

What are the six (6) Gin Botanical Classifications?

1. Seed or Bean
2. Herb
3. Bark
4. Citrus Peel
5. Root
6. Other

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Aniseed

Seed or Bean

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Caraway

Seed or Bean

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Cardamom

Seed or Bean

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Coriander

Seed or Bean

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Cocoa

Seed or Bean

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Vanilla

Seed or Bean

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Angelica

Herb

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Chamomile

Herb

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Hyssop

Herb

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Marjoram

Herb

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Mint

Herb

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Rosemary

Herb

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Sage

Herb

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Cassia

Bark

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Cinnamon

Bark

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Quinine

Bark

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Grapefruit
Lemon
Lime
Orange

Citrus Peel

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Clove

Root

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Fennel

Root

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Licorice

Root

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Orris

Root

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Almond
Calamus
Genetian

Other

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Calamus

Other

Gin Botanical Classifications:
Which category does the following belong in?
Genetian

Other

What are the two (2) ways to make Distilled Gin?

1. Original Distilled Gin
2. Redistilled Gin

How is Original Distilled Gin made?

1. The mash is double-distilled in pot stills.
2. The second distillation uses a gin head or steep the botanicals with the base spirit.
3. The vapors come off the gin still at 150-170 proof

Define Gin Head:

A mesh tray, basket, or perforated rack that hangs above the liquid level and contains the botanicals to be infused into the finished gin.

Explain how a gin head works:

alcoholic vapors pass through the gin head and pick up the aromatic oils of the botancials. These vapors are then condensed to gin.

What proof does the vapors come of the gin still at?

150 to 170 proof

How is Redistilled Gin made?

1. The mash is distilled in a column still to at least 190 proof.
2. Water is added to reduce the spirit to 120 proof.
3. Reduced spirit is placed in a Gin Still with a Gin Head to pick up flavoring, coming off at 150 to 170 proof.
4. Only the heart is used
5. Water is added to reduce spirit to 80 proof or higher.

What are the two (2) ways to make Compound Gin?

1. Cold Compounding
2. Compounding Essence

How is compound gin made?

by mixing high-proof neutral spirits with extracts of juniper berries and other botanicals and flavorings.

Explain the Cold Compounding method for making compound gin:

1. Gin concentrate is produced using a gin still.
2. Concentrate is added to high-proof spirit at AMBIENT room temperature.

Explain the Compounding Essence method for making compound gin:

1. Essential oils are added to a neutral spirit
2. Mixture is blended
3. Spirit is reduced to bottling strength

What are the EU regulations for Gin production?

1. Both Distilled and Compound Gin are recognized, like the US
2. Made from a spirit that meets the requirements of original strength, which is at least 96% ABV, and is below the MAXIMUM level of congeners for that type of spirit.
3. At least 37.5% ABV with the addition of demineralized or distilled water

True of False:
London Dry Gin is produced all over the world.

True

True of False:
London Dry Gin has the least amount of rules imposed of all the gin styles.

False

What are the requirements when producing a London Dry Gin?

1. Redistilled in the presence of Juniper berry and other natural botanicals.
2. No other flavorings may be added AFTER redistillation.

What type of gin is London Dry Gin?

Distilled gin, NOT compound.

Which style gin would be described as "Light, Dry and Crisp, with an overlying juniper berry flavor:?

London Dry Gin

What do the following terms indicate:
Dry Gin
Extra Dry Gin
Very Dry Gin

A lack of any sweetness.
Yes, that's it.

What style of gin would be described as "full-bodied, clear in color, and slightly fruity, with a very aromatic juniper profile"?

Plymouth Gin

Of the English port gins, how many still exist?

Two, London Dry Gin and Plymouth Gin

What is the history of Plymouth Gin?

It is the last remaining style from english port distilleries, apart from London Dry Gin. Black Friars Distillery founded in 1697, starting making gin in 1793 and was renamed Coates & Co. and is the only producer of this style today.

What style of gin is considered sweet?

Old Tom Gin

What is the history of Old Tom Gin?

The gin consumed during the English "Gin Craze". Bars had plaques of Old Tom Cats and pedestrians could deposit money into the mouth and a shot of gin would get poured back to the customer via a tube between the paws.

What gin was originally used to make a Tom Collins?

Old Tom Gin

What is Old Tom Gin sweetened with?

Simple Sugar

What style of gin would be considered the precursor to modern gin?

Genever or Jenever

Which style of gin has and AOC designation and what countries is it limited to?

Genever, which can only be produced in the Netherlands, Belgium, 2 departments of France, and 2 states of Germany

What style gin would be described as "Full-bodied, with a distinct malt flavor"?

Genever

What makes Genever unique?

1. AOC designation
2. From a malted grain mash (malt spirit)
3. Lower bottling proof

How does the malted spirit used in Genever impact the juniper flavor?

It reduces the pungency.

Explain how Genever is produced

1. Equal parts of malted barley and other cereal (usually corn) are milled, cooked and fermented into beer. This beer is distilled in a column still to 50% ABV, then reduced to 25% ABV with distilled water. Two additional distillations are done in pot stills to create the Malt Wine, which is between 45-48% ABV
2. A neutral spirit is concurrently produced in a continuous still and infused with low quantities of juniper, botanicals, and hops and then redistilled, and then diluted to produce a low-proof distillate.
3. The two components are blended and have an ABV of 40%

What does the bottle of Genever traditional look like?

Cylindrical stoneware crock.

What are the four (4) sub-styles of Genever?

1. Oude
2. Jonge
3. Graanjenever
4. Korenwijn

What is the original Genever, and is sweet and malty. It contains at least 15% malt spirit?

Oude (old)

What Genever is drier and lighter bodied and may not contain more than 15% malt spirit?

Jonge (young)

What Genever does not contain any malt spirit?

Graanjenever

What Genever is aged in 700L or smaller casks and has at least 15% malt spirit?

Korenwijn

What is the name of the German gin that is double-distilled and flavored with juniper and other botanicals?

Wacholder

What is the name of the oldest German Gin, that is only flavored with juniper?

Steinhager

Requirements for Flavored Gins:

1. Only natural flavoring materials may be used
2. Bottle at 30% ABV or higher
3. Dominant flavor must appear on the label

Under EU law, from what can anise-flavored spirits deriver their flavor?

1. Star Anise
2. Green Anise
3. Fennel
However, Anise must be dominant

What is the second most common botanically infused neutral spirit? Where does it originate?

Anise-based, originating from the Mediterranean

Where is caraway the popular botanical ingredient?

Scandinavia

Define Louching:

cloudiness of the spirit as a result of botanical oils falling out of solution because water was added. These oils can remain in an alchol-dominant solution.

Name two types of botanical spirits that demonstrate louching:

1. Anise-based
2. Caraway-based

Define Raki (Rucka):

One of the oldest spirits and highest quality anise spirits, from Turkey and Greece. Produced from sultana grapes, dried or fresh. Fermented into wine with 10% ABV and column distilled to 94% ABV. It is then redistilled in an alembic still with aniseed. The head is collected at 72% ABV.

How is Ouzo different from Raki?

1. Ouzo can use sugarcane in addition to grapes.
2. Sweeter with maximum sugar of 50 g/L

What botanical is used in Absinthe production?

Wormwood

What characteristics does wormwood impart?

Musky, floral and licorice

What botanical spirit was banned in the US and when was it lifted?

Absinthe was banned in 1915, due to the implication of it causing mental illness. The ban was lifted in 2007.

What is the primary botanical in Pernod?

Anise

What is the primary botanical in Pastis?

Anise

How do Pernod and Pastis differ?

Pastis is drier and is made from 48+ botanicals go into the secret recipe!

What is the maximum sugar allowed in Pastis?

100 g/L

Who developed the following?
1. Pernod
2. Pastis

1. Henri-Louis Pernod
2. Ricard distillery

Define Akavit:

Potato based neutral spirit, flavored with caraway, dill and coriander.

Where is Akavit produced?

Scandinavia: Denmark and Sweden

What is oak-aged Akavit or Aquavit called?

Snaps or Schnaps

What is the primary botanical in Pacharan?

Sloe Berry

Where is Pacharan produced?

Basque Country of Spain under the Denominacion de Origen (DO) Pacharan Navarro

How is Pacharan made?

sloe berry, which is similar to plum, is macerated in neutral spirit with anise and then optionally sweetened. Deep red in color.

What is Pacharan called if it is made outside of the DO?

Sloe gin

True of False:
Sloe Gin is a style of Gin

False

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