"confused, unintelligible language"; "a strange, outlandish, or barbarous language"
"a hybrid language or dialect simplified in vocabulary and grammar and used for communication between peoples of different speech"; "the technical terminology or characteristic idom of a special activity or group" or "obscure and often pretentious langugage marked by circumlocution and long words"
refers to a literal meaning of a word
refers to an association, emotional or otherwise, that the word evokes.
Figures of Rhetoric
methods of elaborating one's style
any artful variation from the typical arrangement of words in a sentence
any artful variation from the typical or expected way a word or idea is expressed
Parallelism of words
Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobics sessions benefit a person's heart and lungs, muscles and nerves, and joints and cartilage.
Parallelism of phrases
Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobics sessions help a person breathe more effectively, move with less discomfort, and avoid injury.
Parallelism of clauses
Exercise physiologists argue that body-pump aerobics sessions is the most efficient exercise class, that body-pump paritcipants show greater gain in stamina than participants in comparable exercise programs, and that body-pump aerobics is less expensive in terms of equipment and training needed to lead or take classes.
a figure in which more than one item in a sentence is governed by a single word, usually a verb.
parallelism is used to juxtapose words, phrases, or clauses that contrast.
Antithesis of words
When distance runners reach the state they call the zone, they find themselves mentally engaged yet detached.
Antithesis of phrases
When distance runners reach the state they call the zone, they find themselves mentally engaged with their physical surroundings yet detached from moment-to-moment concerns about their conditioning.
Antithesis of clauses
When distance runners reach the state they call the zone, they find that they are empirically engaged with their physical surroundings, yet they are also completely detached from moment-to-moment concerns about their conditioning.
words are repeated in different grammatical forms.
set off by dashes, interrupts a flow in order ro provide necessary, on-the-spot information or ideas for readers.
a construction in which two coordinating elements are set side by side, and the second explains or modifies the first.
any omission of words, the meaning of which is provided by the overall context of the passage.
an omission of conjunctions between related clauses.
repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning or in the middle of two or more adjacent words
repetition of vowel sounds in the stressed syllables of two or more adjacent words.
repetition of the same age group of words at the beginning of successive clauses
repetition of the same group of words at the end of successive clauses.
repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause
repetition of words, phrases, or clauses in order of increasing number or importance
the comparision of two things is made explicit with the use of the word like or as.
the comparision of two things is made implicit without the use of the word like or as.
A part of something is used to refer to the whole.
An entity is referred to by one of its attributes.
Inanimate objects are given human characteristics.
A descriptive word or phrase is used to refer to a proper name.
One part of speech, usually a verb, substitutes for another, usually a noun
Sounds of the words used are related to their meaning
the trope of overstatement
trope for understatement
Words are meant to convey the opposite of their literal meaning.
Words that have apparently contradictory meanings are placed near each other
A question is designed not to secure an answer but to move the development of an idea forward and suggest a point.