At a flow rate of 6 L/min, a nasal cannula can deliver an
approximate oxygen concentration of up to:
An adult at rest should have a respiratory rate that ranges
12 and 20 breaths/min
A 51 -year -old female presents with a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She is conscious and alert and able to speak in complete sentences. Her respirations are 22 breaths/min and regular. You should:
administer 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
The jaw -thrust maneuver is used to open the airway of patients with suspected:
cervical spine injuries.
Which of the following patients is breathing adequately?
a conscious male with respirations of 19 breaths/min and pink skin
A 71 -year -old male is semiconscious following a sudden, severe headache. There is vomitus on his face and his respirations are slow and shallow. The EMT must immediately:
perform oropharyngeal suctioning.
Structures of the lower airway include all of the following,
You are ventilating a 40 -year -old uninjured man who is apneic but has a pulse. When your partner reassesses his blood pressure, he notes that it has decreased significantly from previous readings. You elevate the patient's but this action has no effect. You should:
reevaluate the rate and volume of your ventilations.
Which of the following statements regarding oxygen is correct?
Oxygen supports the
combustion process and may cause a fire.
you and your partner are caring for a critically injured patient. Your partner is controlling severe bleeding from the patient's lower extremities as you attempt ventilations with a bag-mask device. After repositioning the mask several times, you are unable to effectively ventilate the patient. You should:
begin ventilations using the mouth -to-mask technique.
Which of the following patients should you place in the recovery position?
a 31 -year -old semiconscious male with low blood sugar and adequate breathing
Which of the following statements regarding the one-person bag -mask device technique is correct?
Adequate tidal volume is often difficult to achieve when one EMT is operating the bag- mask device.
Which of the following patients would MOST likely require insertion of an oropharyngeal airway?
a 40 -year-old unconscious patient with slow, shallow respirations
CPAP is indicated for patients who:
have pulmonary edema and can follow verbal commands.
In contrast to inhalation, exhalation:
is a passive process caused by increased intrathoracic pressure
Proper technique for suctioning the oropharynx of an adult patient includes:
suctioning while withdrawing the catheter from the oropharynx.
An oxygen cylinder should be taken out of service and refilled
when the pressure inside it is less than:
Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask on a patient, you must
ensure that the:
reservoir bag is fully inflated.
Which of the following structures is contained within the mediastinum?
What is the MOST common cause of airway obstruction in an
The MOST serious complication associated with using a nasopharyngeal airway in a patient with trauma to the head or face is:
penetrating the cranium.
Hypoxia is MOST accurately defined as:
inadequate oxygen to the tissues and cells.
With a good mask -to-face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15 L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of
delivering up to ______% inspired
To select the proper size oropharyngeal airway, you should measure from the:
corner of the mouth to the earlobe
The diaphragm functions as an involuntary muscle when a
In which of the following patients would the head tilt chin lift maneuver be the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway?
a 37 -year -old female who is found unconscious in her bed
While eating dinner, your partner suddenly grabs his throat and
has a panicked look on his face. He has a weak cough, faint inspiratory stridor, and cyanosis around the lips. You should:
stand behind him and administer abdominal thrusts.
Which of the following statements regarding oxygenation and ventilation is correct?
In mines or confined places, where oxygen levels are low, ventilation may continue despite adequate oxygenation.
If ventilation is impaired, carbon dioxide levels in the bloodstream will increase. This condition is called:
Each cell of the body combines nutrients and oxygen and
produces energy and waste products through a process called:
Irregular respirations characterized by an increasing rate and
depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called:
Cheyne -Stokes respirations.
The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the
alveoli and the blood of the capillaries is called:
Despite your attempts to coach a conscious young female's
respirations, she continues to hyperventilate with a marked reduction in tidal volume. You should:
explain to her that you will assist her ventilations.
The partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli is _______ mm Hg, while the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli is _______ mm Hg.
Which of the following would NOT cause a decrease in tidal volume?
What occurs when a patient is breathing very rapidly and shallowly?
Air moves primarily in the anatomic dead space and does not participate in pulmonary gas exchange.
The __________ cartilage is a firm ring that forms the inferior
part of the larynx.
Tidal volume is defined as the volume of air that:
moves into or out of the lungs in a single breath.
Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange in the lungs is correct?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries.
The nasal cannula is MOST appropriately used in the prehospital setting:
when the patient cannot tolerate a nonrebreathing mask.
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A nasopharyngeal airway is inserted:
with the bevel facing the septum if inserted into the right nare.
Which of the following is the MOST reliable indicator of adequately performed bag -mask ventilations in an apneic adult with a pulse?
adequate rise of the chest when squeezing the bag
The leaf -shaped structure located superior to the larynx is called the:
The primary waste product of aerobic metabolism is:
In the presence of oxygen, the mitochondria of the cells
convert glucose into energy through a process called:
You are dispatched to a residence where a middle-aged man was found unconscious in his front yard. There are no witnesses who can tell you what happened. You find him in a prone position; his eyes are closed and he is not moving. Your FIRST action should be to:
log roll him as a unit to a supine position.
The nasopharyngeal airway is MOST beneficial because it:
can maintain a patent airway in a semiconscious patient with a gag reflex.
Which of the following structures is NOT found in the upper airway?
An unconscious patient found in a prone position must be placed in a supine position in case he or she:
requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
Without adequate oxygen, the body's cells:
incompletely convert glucose into energy, and lactic acid accumulates in the blood.
You are ventilating an apneic woman with a bag-mask device. She has dentures, which are tight-fighting. Adequate chest rise is present with each ventilation, and the patient's oxygen saturation reads 96%. When you reassess the patency of her airway, you note that her dentures are now loose, although your ventilations are still producing adequate chest rise. You should:
remove her dentures, resume ventilations, and assess for adequate chest rise.
You have inserted an oral airway and are ventilating an apneic woman with a bag -mask device. She suddenly begins regurgitating large amounts of vomit. You should:
roll her onto her side and remove the oral airway
Which of the following factors will cause a decreased minute
volume in an adult?
The MOST significant complication associated with oropharyngeal suctioning is:
hypoxia due to prolonged suction attempts.
Which of the following is a late sign of hypoxia?
How does CPAP improve oxygenation and ventilation in patients with certain respiratory problems?
It forces the alveoli open and pushes more oxygen across the alveolar membrane
Central chemoreceptors located in the medulla provide feedback to increase the rate and depth of breathing when they sense:
slight elevations in carbon dioxide or a decrease in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid.
Inhalation occurs when the:
diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract and cause a decrease in intrathoracic pressure.
You and your partner are treating a 66-year -old man who experienced a sudden onset of respiratory distress. He is conscious but is unable to follow simple verbal commands. Further assessment reveals that his breathing is severely labored and his oxygen saturation is 80%. You should:
assist his ventilations with a bag -mask device.
As the single EMT managing an apneic patient's airway, the
preferred initial method of providing ventilations is the:
mouth -to-mask technique with a one -way valve.
A ventilation/perfusion (V/Q ratio) mismatch occurs when:
a disruption in blood flow inhibits the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs, even though the alveoli are filled with fresh oxygen.
You are ventilating a patient with a stoma; however, air is escaping from the mouth and nose. To prevent this, you should:
seal the mouth and nose.
Which of the following statements regarding positive-pressure ventilation is correct?
With positive -pressure ventilation, more volume is required to have the same effects as normal breathing.
You are performing mouth-to-mask ventilations with oxygen connected and set at a flow rate of 15 L/min. What percentage of oxygen is your patient receiving?
The purpose of the pin-indexing system that has been established for compressed gas cylinders is to:
ensure that the correct regulator is used for the cylinder.
The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately _______ pounds per square inch (psi).
Which of the following organs or tissues can survive the longest without oxygen?
What is the minute volume of a patient with a tidal volume of 500 mL, a dead space volume of 150
A 37 -year -old male has an apparent foreign body airway obstruction. He is conscious and alert and is coughing forcefully. His skin is pink, warm, and moist. The MOST appropriate treatment for this patient includes:
encouraging him to cough and transporting.
Gas exchange in the lungs is facilitated by:
adequate amounts of surfactant.