What is a protein made of?
What is a polypeptide?
string of amino acids
How many amino acids are there?
Where are proteins assembled?
What is the assembly line of Protein Synthesis?
DNA to RNA to Protein
What is the three parts of Protein Synthesis in order?
transcription, RNA processing, translation
What three things does a DNA and RNA both contain?
sugar, phosphate, and base.
DNA is _____ (stranded) while RNA is ______ (stranded).
What are the Base pairs of DNA?
A to T, G to C
What are the Base pairs of RNA?
A to U, G to C
What sugar does DNA have? RNA?
What is the primary transcript?
length of RNA
What is made in transcription?
What RNA sends messages to the ribosome from the DNA?
What RNA builds ribosomes?
What RNA gives amino acid to ribosome?
What does RNA polymerase do?
Unwinds DNA and makes primary transcript
What is the part of primary transcript that is used?
What is the part of primary transcript that is not used?
What separates exons from introns?
When does RNA processing happen?
Before mRNA leaves nucleus
How does the mRNA leave the nucleus?
through nuclear pore
How does translation start?
mRNA attaches to ribosome
How many binding sites does a ribosome have?
How many parts of a ribosome?
What does tRNA do?
brings amino acid to ribosome
What is attached to a tRNA? What base pairs?
amino acid, anticodon
What is the function of tRNA?
tRNA lines up amino acids using mRNA code
How many base pairs in a codon? How many codons per amino acid?
What is genetic Code?
code of codons to amino acids
What is a gene?
Segment of DNA that controls a trait
Where does transcription occur?
Where does translation occur?
What is the "assembly line" of transcription?
DNA to mRNA
What is the "assembly line" of translation?
mRNA to Protein
What is Transcription Overall?
Process by which genetic information encoded in DNA is copied onto messenger RNA
What is translation overall?
Process by which information encoded in mRNA is used to assemble a protein at a ribosome
What are the binding parts on the Ribosome? (letters)
E, P, A
What is a codon?
coding triplet of mRNA bases
What are the two types of mutations?
Point and Frameshift
What are the three ways mutations can occur?
Base substitution, insertion, deletion
What are three types of Point mutations
Silent, Nonsense, Missense
The mutation does not cause a change in amino acid.
The mutation produces an altered amino acid
The mutation changes a codon that specified an amino acid to one of the STOP codons
This mutation changes that effect the reading frame of the genetic message.
What is so severe about a frameshift mutation?
Every amino acid is changes from the point of the mutation, because every codon changes.
What base is in DNA but not RNA?
What base is in RNA but not DNA?
How does RNA polymerase know when to start?
Binds to promoters, regions on DNA.
What makes a promoter a promoter?
Specific base sequences.
What is the RNA polymerase stop signal called?
What are the three parts of a mature RNA in order?
(Protective) Cap, Exons, (Protective) Poly A tail
What is the start codon on mRNA?
What are the stop codons on mRNA?
UAA, UAG, UGA
How do anti codons and codons bind?
What can be a result of a Nonsense mutation?
translation stops prematurely.
IS DNA replication always accurate?
Are most mutations bad?
Are most mutations corrected?
Can a mutation in DNA be passed on?
What does mutation fuel?
natural selection and evolution.
The tRNA molecule connects with the mRNA molecule by using the ____ ____ rule.
What amino acid is the start?