According to Erikson, development that encompasses changes both in the understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others' behavior.
According to Erikson, the period during which children aged 3 to 6 years experience conflict between independence of action and the sometimes negative results of that action.
A philosophy that emphasizes personal identity and the uniqueness of the individual.
The phenomenon in which minority children indicate preferences for majority values or people.
The process in which children attempt to be similar to their same-sex parent, incorporating the parent's attitudes and values.
The belief that people are permanently males or females, depending on fixed, unchangeable biological factors.
Action in which children play with similar toys, in a similar manner, but do not interact with each other.
Action in which children simp watch others play, but do not actually participate themselves.
Play in which two or more children actually interact with one another by sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing.
Play in which children genuinely interact with one another, taking turns, playing games, or devising contests.
Parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, and cold, and whose law word is law.
Parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children.
Parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way.
Authoritative parents (The best way to parent)
Parents who show almost no interest in their children and indifferent, rejecting behavior.
The theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children.
Cycle of violence hypothesis
Abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children's behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning.
The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage.
The changes in people's sense of justice and of what is right and wrong, and in their behavior related to moral issues.
The process in which modeling paves the way for the development of more general rules and principles.
The capability to adjust emotions to a desired state and level of intensity.