Chapter 17 Inner ear - Equilibrium

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Labyrinth

Complex system of communicating chambers and tubes that the inner ear is made up of

membranous and osseous

Two types of lybyrinth

hearing and equilibrium

Two receptors the inner ear contains.

Perilympth

What is between the two labyrinths

Perilymph

Extracellular fluid located within cochlea

Endolymph

Inside the membranous labyrinth

semicircular canals

The parts of the labyrinth include the three ____________ which provide a sense of equilibrium

Cochlea

Contains a bony core and thin bony shelves

scala vestibuli

Chamber in the bony labyrinth above the cochlear duct, opens to oval window

scala tympani

Chamber below the cochlear duct, opens to the round window

Perilymph

What are both the scala tympani and scala vestibuli filled with?

vestibular membrane

Separates the cochlear duct from scala vestibuli

basilar membrane

Separates the cochlear duct from scala tympani

cochlear duct

Chamber in the membranous labyrinth which contains hearing receptors

Endolymph

What is the cochlear duct filled with?

spiral organ

Organ of hearing, rests on the basilar membrane inside of the cochlear duct

hair cells and supporting cells

What does the spiral organ contain?

hair cells

Receptors for hearing and are actually epithelial cells synapses with neurons of the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)

Stereocilia

What do hair cells have which contact the tectorial membrane

external auditory meatus

The auricle directs sound waves into what?

auditory ossicles

Amplify and transmit vibrations to end of stapes

oval window

Movement of stapes at _______ set up fluid pressure waves in perilymph of cochlea

scala vestibuli, scala tympani, round window

Pressure waves are transmitted from the _______ to ______ and eventually the __________

vestibular membrane

As pressure waves deform the walls of the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, they push what back and forth?

receptor cells

Different frequencies of vibration in endolymph stimulate different sets of what

calcium ions

As a receptor cells depolarizes, its membrane becomes more permeable to what

Neurotransmitters

Inward diffusion of calcium ions causes vesicles at the base of the receptor cell to release what?

sensory neurons

Neurotransmitters stimulates ends of nearby what?

auditory cortices

Nerve fibers carry impulses to what part of the temporal lobes where they are interpreted

auditory cortex

What part of the temporal lobe interprets sensory impulses

20-20,000

Normal hearing can detect sound waves with frequencies from _______ or more vibrations per second

static and dynamic

Two parts of the sense of equilibrium

static equilibrium

Help to maintain the position of the head when the head and body are still

dynamic equilibrium

Help to maintain balance when the head and body suddenly move and rotate

bony vestibule

Where are organs of static equilibrium located within?

utricle and saccule

Expansions of membranous labyrinth

Macula

Tiny structure consisting of hair cells and supporting cells

Otoliths

Grains of calcium carbonate

gelatin and otoliths

What two things does gravity cause to shift, bending hair cells and generating a nervous impulse.

semicircular canals

What detects motion of the head and aids in balancing the head and body during sudden movement

cristae ampullaris

Organs of dynamic equilibrium

Ampulla

Cristae ampullaris are located in the _____ of each semicircular canal of the inner ear.

Cupula

Hair cells extend into a dome-shaped gelatinous ______

Mechanoreceptors

Associated with joints, and the changes detected by the eyes also help maintain equilibrium.

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