Art History ch. 1-5

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90 terms · Art History, Marilyn Stokstad 3rd edition Vol. 1

Apadana

the great hall in ancient Persian palaces

Artistic Conventions

the norm; how everyone in that time period portrayed art

Ashlar Masonry

a highly finished, precisely cut block of stone. When laid in even courses, ashlar masonry creates a uniform face with fine joints. Often used as a facing on the visible exterior of a building, especially as a veneer for the façade.

Aten

A solar diety declared by Amenhotep IV to be the only god, represented as a solar disk with rays ending in human hands.

Atlantid

male figured column

Atlatl

notched throwing stick used by hunters to propel spears farther and faster.

BCE

Before Common Era

Ben-Ben

represented the very first mound of earth and marked the point where the first rays of sunlight fell from Re. The conical shape marked the Pharaoh's way to heaven by ascending the rays of the sun.

Bilateral Symmetry

the property of being symmetrical about a vertical plane

Book of the Dead

Collection of religious spells which were thought to be helpful to the deceased in the afterlife.

Buon Fresco

true or wet fresco; pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster

Cartouche

a frame for a hieroglyphic inscription formed by a rope design surrounding and oval space. Used to signify a sacred or honored name.

Clerestory

The topmost zone of a wall with windows in a basilica extending above the aisle roofs. Provides direct light into the central interior space (the nave).

Composite Creature

Creature made with assorted body parts from different animals usually symbolizes a divinity

Conceptual Art

art that is intended to convey an idea or concept to the perceiver and need not involve the creation or appreciation of a traditional art object such as a painting or sculpture.

Corbelling

courses of strone or brick in which each course projects beyond the one beneath it.

Crenellation

alternating high and low sections of wall, giving a notched appearence and creating permanent defensive shields in the walls, giving a notched appearence

Cuneiform

an early form of writing with wedge-shaped marks impressed into wet clay with a stylus, primarily used by ancient Mesopotamians.

Cyclades

the pre-Mycenaean civilization on the Cyclades islands in the southern Aegean sea

Cyclopean Masonry

a primitive style of masonry characterized by use of massive stones of irregular shape and size

Cylinder Seal

Mesopotamian system of impressing symbolic notation onto wet clay with a marked cylinder

Dressed Stone

blocks of stone that have been cut and shaped to fit in a particular place for a particular purpose

Dynasty

a series of rulers from the same family

Faience

type of ceramic covered with colorful, opaque glazes that forma smooth, impermeable surface. First developed in ancient Egypt.

False Beard

a beard which pharaohs would wear that showed a symbol of royal authority

Fresco Secco

created by painting on dried plaster, and the color may flake off

Frontal Eye (almond-shaped eye)

eye shown in frontal view despite the perspective

Heb Sed Festival

an ancient Egyptian ceremony which was held to celebrate the continued rule of a pharaoh.

Henge

a circular area enclosed by stones or wood posts set up by Neolithic peoples. It is usually bounded by a ditch and raised embankment.

Heraldic Pose

when two animals are symmetrically flanking vertical form; emphasizes importance.

Hierarchy of Scale

figures of importance are bigger.

Hieratic Scale

the use of different sizes for significant or holy figures and those of the everyday world to indicate importance. The larger the figure, the greater the importance.

Hieroglyphic

pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented.

High Relief

relief sculpture in which the image projects strongly from the background.

Horus

the falcon- He was the son of Isis and Osiris, shown with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The pharaohs were thought to represent Horus on earth.

Hypostyle Hall

a hall with a roof supported by columns

Iconography

n. the study of a group of representative pictures or symbols

Imhotep

Egyptian architect; first ever known by name.

Incise

To cut into with a sharp instrument; to engrave

Ka

a spiritual entity, an aspect of the individual, believed to live within the body during life and to survive it after death.

Labryinth

a vast maze built in Crete by Daedalus, at the command of King Minos, to house the Minotaur.

Lamassu

from the citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin, Assyria, ca. 720-705 BCE. Winged, man-headed bulls served to ward off the king's enemies.

Lapis Lazuli

an azure blue semiprecious stone

Light Well

openings in the roof to allow light to enter room; Palace of Minos at Knossos

Lotus

Upper Egypt

Low Relief

a sculptural relief in which forms extend only slightly from the background

Mastaba

an ancient Egyptian mudbrick tomb with a rectangular base and sloping sides and flat roof

Megalith

a large stone used in prehistoric building. Megalithic architecture employs such stones.

Megaron

the main hall of a Mycenaean palace or grand house, having a columnar porch and a room with a central fireplace surrounded by four columns.

Memory Image

an image that relies on the generic shapes and relationships that readily spring to mind at the mention of an object.

Mesopotamia

first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture

Minoan Column

larger at the top and narrower at the bottom.

Minotaur

a monster, the offspring of Pasiphaë and the Cretan bull, that had the head of a bull on the body of a man: housed in the Cretan Labyrinth, it was fed on human flesh until Theseus, helped by Ariadne, killed it.

Modeling

in painting, the process of creating the illusion of three-dimensionality on a two-dimensional surface by use of light and shade. In sculpture, the process of molding a three-dimensional form out of a malleable substance.

Mortise and Tenon Joints

a method of jointing two elements. A projecting pin (tenon) on one element fits snugly into a hole designed for it (mortise) on the other. Such joints are very strong and flexible.

Mudbrick

a brick made from baked mud.

Necropolis

a cemetery—literally, a "city of the dead."

Nemes Headdress

The royal headdress of Egypt.

Neolithic

latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)

Niello

a metal technique in which a black sulfur alloy is rubbed into fine lines engraved into a metal (usually gold or silver). When heated, the alloy becomes fused with the surrounding metal and provides contrasting detail.

Ochre

(Noun) an earthy usually red or yellow and often impure iron ore used as a pigment

Paleolithic

The period of the Stone Age associated with the evolution of humans. It predates the Neolithic period.

Palette

a somewhat flattish slate object of various shapes, carved with commemorative scenes or motifs or, esp. in the smaller pieces, containing a recessed area probably or mixing eye makeup and often used as a votive offering.

Papyrus

lower Egypt

Passage grave

a megalithic tomb of the Neolithic and Copper or early Bronze ages found in the British Isles and Europe, consisting of a roofed burial chamber and narrow entrance passage covered by a round mound and containing human remains and funerary offerings.

Pithos

a very large earthenware jar having a wide mouth, used by the ancient Greeks for storing liquids, as wine, or for holding food, as grain, or for the burial of the dead.

Post and Lintel

a system of construction in which two posts support a lintel (beam) going across them.

Prehistory

the time before written records

Radiocarbon dating

a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14

Register

A device used in systems of spatial definition.

Relief Sculpture

Sculpture that's flat background is carved out to create raised shapes

Relieving Triangle

In Mycenaean architecture, the triangular opening above the lintel that serves to lighten the weight to be carried by the lintel itself.

Repousse

formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back, leaving the impression on the face

Sacred Marriage

Marriage between a god and goddess

Sarsen

any of numerous large sandstone blocks or fragments found in south-central England, probably remnants of eroded Tertiary beds.

Sculpture in the round

Freestanding figures, carved or modeled in three dimensions

Serdab

A small concealed chamber in Egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased for the Ka to find

Shaft-grave

A deep pit used for burial.

Shaman

a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds, using magic to cure illness, foretell the future, control spiritual forces, etc.

Sunken Relief

The artist cuts the design into the surface so that the highest projecting parts of the image are no higher than the surface itself

Sympathetic Magic

magic predicated on the belief that one thing or event can affect another at a distance as a consequence of a sympathetic connection between them.

Tell

an artificial mound consisting of the accumulated remains of one or more ancient settlements (often used in Egypt and the Middle East as part of a place name).

Tholos Tomb

In Mycenean architecture, a beehive-shaped tomb with a circular plan.

Thutmose

the nephew of Hatshepsut. a pharaoh

Tribute

gift to the gods

Trilithon

a pair of monoliths topped with a lintel

Twisted Perspective

A convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally

Uraeus Cobra

The Uraeus is a stylized upright cobra (or snake / serpent), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt.

Votive Offering

A gift of gratitude to a deity.

Ziggurat

in Mesopotamia, a tall stepped tower of earthen materials, often supporting a shrine.

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