________ developed as a reaction to the "failure" of the "melting pot" model of society (more on this soon). An analogy of this would be a "Salad Bowl"
philosophical, political project, social sciences
As an idea, multiculturalism is a _________ approach (ideas about what the American society ought to be)
As practiced, it is a _________ (claim/struggle for rights)
It is a theory in _________
Deep down _________ is about the tension between unity and diversity, the one and the many.
Universal Citizenship, Nation, The Public Square Model, Universal Citizenship, U.S. Constitution
MELTING POT: -Linked to the theoretical notion of ___________. -State=______. -Individual focused, Liberal model...._______________—roots in Ancient Greece, but fully developed during the Enlightenment._______________—individuals come and debate about matters of political live. -Historically, all individuals?Men of privilege (women, men of lesser status and non-whites traditionally excluded from politics).Example, ____________—originally granted universal rights to all citizens, conceived as white men of property.
submerge, National Identity, E Pluribus Unum, Americanization
CREATING AMERICA: MELTING POT PRACTICE: -Americanization of immigrants -Immigrants are expected to ______ their cultural differences in order to embrace shared ________. -From many, one.The Ford Foundation's ______________ practices and rituals. Graduation ceremony, gigantic wooden melting pot ...(Fadiman p.182).How successful is/was this model?Case study: the Mong
They refused to integrate (melt) into the mainstream USA society
How does the Hmong experience challenge the notion of the Melting Pot in the U.S.?
1) China 2) Vietnamese 3) Vietnam War 4) Laos 5)genocide 6) exodus 7)Thailand 8) US 9)200,000
THE HMONG: History of their arrival the U.S.Originally from _____, moved to SEA due to conflict with ChineseIn conflict with ________, who had a derogatory name for them, "Miao" or "Meo" (barbaric) America's "secret war" : During the ________, the US trained Hmong in _____ to resist communist Vietnamese attacks from the north. (30,000 Hmong may have died as a result of sustained conflict during this lengthy war )CIA promiseNVA forces initiated a campaign of ______ against the Hmong in retaliation for their support for the U.S. The Hmong then started a mass _____ from Laos or went into hiding in remote jungle areas of Laos and then _______ refugee camps -Horrific conditions -Seeking refuge in the __ (came in waves, about 120, 000 to 150,000 total) -Of 3,000 000 Hmong, only _______ made it to safety
1) First Class Citizenship 2)separate, equal 3) Protection, representation 4) citizenship 5) politics
WHAT IS MULTICULTURALISM: Struggle for __________ Demands on behalf of black and other minority (Native Americans, Latinos...) groups for ________ and ________ representation.
-________ and ___________ of difference.
-Expansion of the definition of ________ and grounds for seeking rights.
-Form of ______ politics (social movement)
-___________: redistribution of resources and calls for recognition and respect.
1) Mixed 2) Representation
NEW MULTICULTURALISM: SALAD BOWL: -We are all different and unique, but _____ together we taste better ....
-But how to mix and who should do the mixing?
-In other words, how many tomatoes, if any? And what kind of dressing (the social glue)?
-Multiculturalism, struggle for _________ (place in the salad)
1) Ethnic Identity 2) political 3)intellectual 4)romanticizing otherness 5) contexts 6) mosaic 7) cultural diversity 8) Melting 9) tensions
DIFFERENCE MULTICULTURALISM (prevalent model) -Fetishism of difference, culture reduced to a tag for 1)______ and a license for 2) _______ and 3)_________ separatism. 4)"_______________"-It risks abstracting cultural phenomena from their social and political-economic 5)_______.-Also, it presents social life as a 6)_____ of cultures , and everyone (but whites) has to fit into one...CRITICAL MULTICULTURALISM(anthropology propagated) -Uses 7)_____________ as a basis for challenging basic notions and principles of a nation to construct a more vital, open, and democratic common culture. -From many one, without 8)_____.Looks at 9)______ within cultures and how to resolve those
1) college, extra-academic 2) ideological stance 3) Heterogeneity 4) Culture, ethnicity
HOW DOES MULTICULTURALISM WORK:-Beginnings: Primarily in _______ curriculums and ________cultural programs and events.
____________—participation of such minorities (conceived as separate "cultures") in (changing) national and transnational cultures.
Recognition of __________ of the cultural and ethnic make up of contemporary metropolitan societies (UK and USA).
Key: Concept of _____ merged/equalized with the concept of ______.
Anthropologists have problems with this equation
1) belonging, identity, school, literature, commanding father 2) Grandparents 3) multicultural 4) practice 5) 6) Personal
BARAK OBAMA DREAMS FROM MY FATHER: -A biography of a personal struggle for ______ and _______.
-It is about both happy and unhappy childhood, about lonely voyage to racial identity, tensions in ______, struggling with black _______, with one month-long visit when he was 10 from his _____________..
-A black man raised by his white mother and __________.
-Documentation of coming of age in a _______ society and all despair, loss, mobility, joy and hope it brings about.
-Tension between theory of multiculturalism and _____.
-Where is his place in the multicultural American society?
-Meditation on race relations and part ______ memoir.
1) Ethnocentric 2) forms of knowledge 3) exclusion
PARADOX OF DIFFERENCE IN MULTICULTURAL TEXTBOOKS: - __________ view of the minority cultures (they want to empower).
-emphasize those _________ that have been framing the existing canon.
-E.g., the emphasis on art, music and texts (not oral history) of a literary character as well as historic claims to understanding ("high-culture") achievement: discoveries, inventions...
-This serves as a principle of ______: "When the Zulu have their own Dostoyevsky, we will read it...."
1) Ethnocentrism 2) function, Inequalities
ANTHROPOLOGY AND MULTICULTURALISM: - What can anthropological notions of culture contribute to a political movement for cultural empowerment?
-Cultural anthropologists could take the _______ of the new multicultural curricula and analyze it critically.
-This analysis would point at its ______ in legitimatizing the sorts of ________ (hegemonic cultural elitism) they set to challenge.
1) separated, society 2) repressive 3) political 4) social activity 5) plasticity
THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL CRITIQUE: -Also, culture in multiculturalism is increasingly being seen as _______ from _____.
-Culture, deemed authentic in contrast to ______, alien or otherwise "inauthentic" social and political structures.
-Culture becomes capable of being converted into a _____asset, a form of solidarity and mobilization where the nation-state is being challenged from below. Focus:
-Culture is an inherently ________(culture and society are interrelated)
-_______ of culture (no rigid ethnic cultures, but constantly changing, overlapping, evolving, emerging (sub)cultures)
1) Social 2) Collective 3)malleability 4)program, equalization, liberation
THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL CRITIQUE: -Culture is an inherently _____ activity
-The capacity for culture does not inhere in individuals as such but it arises as an aspect of ________ social life
-Plasticity of culture
-Almost infinite ________ - no limits to the kinds of social groups, networks or relations that can generate a cultural identity of their own.
-Multiculturalism in its larger historical context thus becomes a ______, not only for ________ of relations among existing cultural groups and identities, but for the _______ and encouragement of the process of creating new ones.
What is politically up for grabs?