EXAM 1 REVIEW: Multiculturalism
|Multiculturalism||________ developed as a reaction to the "failure" of the "melting pot" model of society (more on this soon). An analogy of this would be a "Salad Bowl"|
|philosophical, political project, social sciences|| Multiculturalism:|
As an idea, multiculturalism is a _________ approach (ideas about what the American society ought to be)
As practiced, it is a _________ (claim/struggle for rights)
It is a theory in _________
|multiculturalism||Deep down _________ is about the tension between unity and diversity, the one and the many.|
|Universal Citizenship, Nation, The Public Square Model, Universal Citizenship, U.S. Constitution||MELTING POT: -Linked to the theoretical notion of ___________. -State=______. -Individual focused, Liberal model...._______________—roots in Ancient Greece, but fully developed during the Enlightenment._______________—individuals come and debate about matters of political live. -Historically, all individuals?Men of privilege (women, men of lesser status and non-whites traditionally excluded from politics).Example, ____________—originally granted universal rights to all citizens, conceived as white men of property.|
|submerge, National Identity, E Pluribus Unum, Americanization||CREATING AMERICA: MELTING POT PRACTICE: -Americanization of immigrants -Immigrants are expected to ______ their cultural differences in order to embrace shared ________. -From many, one.The Ford Foundation's ______________ practices and rituals. Graduation ceremony, gigantic wooden melting pot ...(Fadiman p.182).How successful is/was this model?Case study: the Mong|
|They refused to integrate (melt) into the mainstream USA society||How does the Hmong experience challenge the notion of the Melting Pot in the U.S.?|
|1) China 2) Vietnamese 3) Vietnam War 4) Laos 5)genocide 6) exodus 7)Thailand 8) US 9)200,000||THE HMONG: History of their arrival the U.S.Originally from _____, moved to SEA due to conflict with ChineseIn conflict with ________, who had a derogatory name for them, "Miao" or "Meo" (barbaric) America's "secret war" : During the ________, the US trained Hmong in _____ to resist communist Vietnamese attacks from the north. (30,000 Hmong may have died as a result of sustained conflict during this lengthy war )CIA promiseNVA forces initiated a campaign of ______ against the Hmong in retaliation for their support for the U.S. The Hmong then started a mass _____ from Laos or went into hiding in remote jungle areas of Laos and then _______ refugee camps -Horrific conditions -Seeking refuge in the __ (came in waves, about 120, 000 to 150,000 total) -Of 3,000 000 Hmong, only _______ made it to safety|
|1) First Class Citizenship 2)separate, equal 3) Protection, representation 4) citizenship 5) politics||WHAT IS MULTICULTURALISM: Struggle for __________ Demands on behalf of black and other minority (Native Americans, Latinos...) groups for ________ and ________ representation.|
-________ and ___________ of difference.
-Expansion of the definition of ________ and grounds for seeking rights.
-Form of ______ politics (social movement)
-___________: redistribution of resources and calls for recognition and respect.
|1) Mixed 2) Representation|| NEW MULTICULTURALISM: SALAD BOWL: -We are all different and unique, but _____ together we taste better ....|
-But how to mix and who should do the mixing?
-In other words, how many tomatoes, if any? And what kind of dressing (the social glue)?
-Multiculturalism, struggle for _________ (place in the salad)
|1) Ethnic Identity 2) political 3)intellectual 4)romanticizing otherness 5) contexts 6) mosaic 7) cultural diversity 8) Melting 9) tensions||DIFFERENCE MULTICULTURALISM (prevalent model) -Fetishism of difference, culture reduced to a tag for 1)______ and a license for 2) _______ and 3)_________ separatism. 4)"_______________"-It risks abstracting cultural phenomena from their social and political-economic 5)_______.-Also, it presents social life as a 6)_____ of cultures , and everyone (but whites) has to fit into one...CRITICAL MULTICULTURALISM(anthropology propagated) -Uses 7)_____________ as a basis for challenging basic notions and principles of a nation to construct a more vital, open, and democratic common culture. -From many one, without 8)_____.Looks at 9)______ within cultures and how to resolve those|
|1) college, extra-academic 2) ideological stance 3) Heterogeneity 4) Culture, ethnicity||HOW DOES MULTICULTURALISM WORK:-Beginnings: Primarily in _______ curriculums and ________cultural programs and events. |
____________—participation of such minorities (conceived as separate "cultures") in (changing) national and transnational cultures.
Recognition of __________ of the cultural and ethnic make up of contemporary metropolitan societies (UK and USA).
Key: Concept of _____ merged/equalized with the concept of ______.
Anthropologists have problems with this equation
|1) belonging, identity, school, literature, commanding father 2) Grandparents 3) multicultural 4) practice 5) 6) Personal||BARAK OBAMA DREAMS FROM MY FATHER: -A biography of a personal struggle for ______ and _______.|
-It is about both happy and unhappy childhood, about lonely voyage to racial identity, tensions in ______, struggling with black _______, with one month-long visit when he was 10 from his _____________..
-A black man raised by his white mother and __________.
-Documentation of coming of age in a _______ society and all despair, loss, mobility, joy and hope it brings about.
-Tension between theory of multiculturalism and _____.
-Where is his place in the multicultural American society?
-Meditation on race relations and part ______ memoir.
|1) Ethnocentric 2) forms of knowledge 3) exclusion||PARADOX OF DIFFERENCE IN MULTICULTURAL TEXTBOOKS: - __________ view of the minority cultures (they want to empower).|
-emphasize those _________ that have been framing the existing canon.
-E.g., the emphasis on art, music and texts (not oral history) of a literary character as well as historic claims to understanding ("high-culture") achievement: discoveries, inventions...
-This serves as a principle of ______: "When the Zulu have their own Dostoyevsky, we will read it...."
|1) Ethnocentrism 2) function, Inequalities||ANTHROPOLOGY AND MULTICULTURALISM: - What can anthropological notions of culture contribute to a political movement for cultural empowerment?|
-Cultural anthropologists could take the _______ of the new multicultural curricula and analyze it critically.
-This analysis would point at its ______ in legitimatizing the sorts of ________ (hegemonic cultural elitism) they set to challenge.
|1) separated, society 2) repressive 3) political 4) social activity 5) plasticity||THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL CRITIQUE: -Also, culture in multiculturalism is increasingly being seen as _______ from _____.|
-Culture, deemed authentic in contrast to ______, alien or otherwise "inauthentic" social and political structures.
-Culture becomes capable of being converted into a _____asset, a form of solidarity and mobilization where the nation-state is being challenged from below. Focus:
-Culture is an inherently ________(culture and society are interrelated)
-_______ of culture (no rigid ethnic cultures, but constantly changing, overlapping, evolving, emerging (sub)cultures)
|1) Social 2) Collective 3)malleability 4)program, equalization, liberation||THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL CRITIQUE: -Culture is an inherently _____ activity |
-The capacity for culture does not inhere in individuals as such but it arises as an aspect of ________ social life
-Plasticity of culture
-Almost infinite ________ - no limits to the kinds of social groups, networks or relations that can generate a cultural identity of their own.
-Multiculturalism in its larger historical context thus becomes a ______, not only for ________ of relations among existing cultural groups and identities, but for the _______ and encouragement of the process of creating new ones.
What is politically up for grabs?