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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. What is a Comedone?
  2. What are some examples of tyrosinase (enzyme responsible for formation of melanin) inhibitors?
  3. What is an Emulsifier [from L. "emulgere" = to milk out, from "ex" = out and "mulgere" = to milk]?
  4. What are some Cell-Communicating Ingredients?
  5. What is Natural Moisturizing Factor?
  1. a Hydroquinone, Arbutin, Licorice Extract, Kojic Acid
  2. b A surfactant that makes it possible for oil and water to mix (typically they don't) and form an emulsion [a colloid (mixture / suspension) where both phases are liquids].
  3. c A mixture of molecules (amino acids and salts) within the cells comprising the outermost layer of the skin. The molecules are hygroscopic [Greek. "hygro" = wet, "skopion" = to look at], attracting and absorbing water, thus hydrating the skin. []
  4. d retinol, retinaldehyde, retinoic acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, eicosapentaenoic acid, niacinamide, lecithin, linolenic acid, linolenic acid, phospholipids, carnitine, carnosine, adenosine triphosphate, adenosine cyclic phosphate, palmitoyl oligopeptide, palmitoyl tripeptide-3 (and most other peptides), and pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract []
  5. e A thickened secretion plugging a duct of the skin, especially of a sebaceous gland [from L. "com" = with, "edere" = eating ; literally = glutton] []

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. The horny outer layer of the Epidermis, consisting of several layers of flat, keratinized (replete with the protein keratin thus becoming horn-like in texture), nonnucleated, dead or peeling cells. []
  2. ...
  3. Between 10 am and 4pm
  4. Niacinamide and Soy
  5. A chronic skin disease which affects adults (more often women) in which blood vessels of the face swell resulting in a flushed appearance. [WordWeb software] Ruddiness, redness of the cheeks, chin, and forehead are common symptoms. Flares up in intervals. [[

5 True/False questions

  1. What skin related problems arise directly as a result of sun exposure?1. discoloration of the skin / uneven skin tone (hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation, decrease or increase in skin pigment) 2. uneven pigmentation (solar lentigo / age spot, either brown, red or black in color) 3. dullness, rough texture (leathery skin) 4. dryness 5. wrinkles (fine lines and deeper wrinkles) 6. actinic keratosis (a precanerous overgrowth of skin caused by excess sun exposure) 7. rosacea 8. melasma (dark irregular patches on the face commonly caused by pregnancy) 9. thinning of the skin (visible veins, broken blood vessels) 10. brown bumps, white bumps (blackheads, whiteheads)


  2. What is Lanolin?An alcohol obtained by saponification of fats and oils


  3. What are the 3 components of the oil secreted by the sebaceous (oil) glands of the skin?wax esters, trigylcerides, squalene


  4. What happens to skin as it ages?The outer layer of skin which helps the skin retain moisture. The skin barrier is like a brick wall, with each brick (or cell) held in place by mortar (fats called lipids).


  5. What often happens to people taking cholesterol lowering drugs?The outer layer of skin get thick, and the underlying layer of skin gets thin, resulting in skin that looks rough and sagging in appearance. [Cosmetic Cop Podcast, July 18th, 2012]


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