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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. What are some natural anti-inflammatory ingredients?
  2. What is the skin barrier?
  3. What is Niacinamide?
  4. What is a Blackhead?
  5. Why is scrubbing skin damaging?
  1. a The outer layer of skin which helps the skin retain moisture. The skin barrier is like a brick wall, with each brick (or cell) held in place by mortar (fats called lipids).
  2. b Blackheads (also called Comedones) are an accumulation of sebum, keratin, skin debris and bacteria within a hair follicle. Follicles in the skin become blocked with sebum, causing the follicle to widen, and collect dead skin cells and bacteria. Blackheads, in contrast to Whiteheads, are open to the air, causing the oils to oxidize, turning them brown (similar process to an apple browning with exposure to oxygen). []
  3. c A water soluble vitamin made from Niacin. Niacinamide and Soy help forestall the transfer of pigment from Melanocytes to skin cells, helping prevent formation of brown spots. [Skin Type Solution, 26]
  4. d When you tear away at skin, it causes a wound healing response, causing inflammation, increasing blood flow to the wounded area and prompting the body to create scar tissue to protect the wounded area, resulting in skin which looks rough and not smooth in texture.
  5. e Oatmeal, Feverfew,Licochalone, Green Tea, Chamomile, Cucumber extract, Calendula, Grapeseed Extract

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Glycerin acts as a humectant and an emollient to soften and smoothe skin
  2. 1. discoloration of the skin / uneven skin tone (hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation, decrease or increase in skin pigment) 2. uneven pigmentation (solar lentigo / age spot, either brown, red or black in color) 3. dullness, rough texture (leathery skin) 4. dryness 5. wrinkles (fine lines and deeper wrinkles) 6. actinic keratosis (a precanerous overgrowth of skin caused by excess sun exposure) 7. rosacea 8. melasma (dark irregular patches on the face commonly caused by pregnancy) 9. thinning of the skin (visible veins, broken blood vessels) 10. brown bumps, white bumps (blackheads, whiteheads)
  3. When the skin is exposed to UV radiation, Melanocytes (Melanin producing cells in the skin) produce increased amounts of the skin pigment Melanin as a mechanism of defense to help arrest radiation damage to the skin's cellular structures and DNA.
  4. Elastin is an elastic protein in connective tissue that allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting
  5. retinol, retinaldehyde, retinoic acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, eicosapentaenoic acid, niacinamide, lecithin, linolenic acid, linolenic acid, phospholipids, carnitine, carnosine, adenosine triphosphate, adenosine cyclic phosphate, palmitoyl oligopeptide, palmitoyl tripeptide-3 (and most other peptides), and pyrus malus (apple) fruit extract []

5 True/False questions

  1. What is Natural Moisturizing Factor?A type of polysaccharide, central to regulating cell growth and renewal. Found extensivelsy in connective, epithelial and neural cells. Binds readily with water and when injected under the skin provides an appearance of fullness


  2. What is BHA and what are examples?Phtlate's are used in nail polish and plastics. Phtlate's are illegal in Europe. [Cosmetic Cop Podcast, July 18th, 2012]


  3. What are the benefits of BHA?The outer layer of skin which helps the skin retain moisture. The skin barrier is like a brick wall, with each brick (or cell) held in place by mortar (fats called lipids).


  4. What is Erythema?Cancer of the melanocytes.


  5. What are the 3 components of the oil secreted by the sebaceous (oil) glands of the skin?wax esters, trigylcerides, squalene


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