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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. What skin care behaviors can irritate the skin and cause inflammation?
  2. What is an Occlusive?
  3. What happens when skin is exposed to a dry environment?
  4. How long does it take to acquire the recommended daily intake of Vitamin D from the sun?
  5. Are tanning beds safe or beneficial to the skin?
  1. a Skin produces more NMF, but production takes several days to reach necessary levels, consequently skin may become quite dehydrated. This is why moisturizing is essential in a dry environment. [Skin Type Solution, 19]
  2. b Over scrubbing the skin, hot water, irritating skin-care ingredients (ALCOHOL, which is irritating for everyone, menthol, lime, eucalyptus, fragrances, essential oils : all of which are more of a concern for people with sensitive skin)
  3. c Tanning beds are terrible for the skin. The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated tanning beds as being a Level 1 Carcinogen, meaning they are as carcinogenic as Mustard Gas and Arsenic.
  4. d Exposing just an arm to the sun at noon during the summer for 20 minutes will provide the body with approximately 10,000 IU of Vitamin D.
  5. e Materials such as oils and waxes which cannot be penetrated by water. Occlusives are spread onto skin to form a film which shields it to slow and prevent moisture from evaporating. []

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. Parents who are concerned about their children's future appearance are advised to take their children (particularly teenagers) to a Dermatologist and allow them to see what their skin will look like in the near future. Hopefully that will communicate to them the folly of sunbathing, tanning beds and sun exposure in general.
  2. It was discovered in 1978 by scientists who were researching treatments for Acne.
  3. An alcohol obtained by saponification of fats and oils
  4. USP = United States Pharmaceutical. The USP was founded in 1820 to combat inconsistent drug quality and protect the public health; to create a system of standards to help ensure medication quality and uniformity in the United States. Official USP standards are legally enforceable by the U.S. Food Drug and Administration (FDA) for drugs imported to or marketed in the United States. USP establishes both written standards and physical USP Reference Standards. []
  5. The horny outer layer of the Epidermis, consisting of several layers of flat, keratinized (replete with the protein keratin thus becoming horn-like in texture), nonnucleated, dead or peeling cells. []

5 True/False questions

  1. What are the benefits of BHA?AHA exfoliates by loosening the bonds between dead corneum cells by dissolving the intercellular cement (lipids) holding them together. AHA's also improve moisture content. AHA's are preferred for sun damaged and dry skin because they exfoliate on the surface of the skin. []


  2. What is an emollient?A substance which softens the skin [from Latin. "ex" = out and "mollire" = soften]


  3. What are the 2 methods of preventing unwanted skin pigment formation?The first is to inhibit the enzyme tyrosinase (enzyme responsible for the formation of melanin), preventing the formation of melanin. The second is to stop the transfer of color into the skin cells. [Skin Type Solution]


  4. What is a White Head?Blackheads (also called Comedones) are an accumulation of sebum, keratin, skin debris and bacteria within a hair follicle. Follicles in the skin become blocked with sebum, causing the follicle to widen, and collect dead skin cells and bacteria. Blackheads, in contrast to Whiteheads, are open to the air, causing the oils to oxidize, turning them brown (similar process to an apple browning with exposure to oxygen). []


  5. What is Genistein?Lanolin is an oily, yellow substance produced by the oil glands in a sheep's skin. It coats the sheep's wool, acting as a waterproof barrier, as a result, when the sheep are in inclement weather for hours, they are less affected by the cold. Known in Greek and Roman times, it was noticed that sheep farmer's had smooth, well-hydrated hands, so use of Lanolin became widespread. []


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