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Prenatally, development happens in a "near to far" pattern known as

proximodistal

The infant mortality rate in Ghana is ______ times that in the United States.

10

Which of the following terms describes the level at which a certain teratogen becomes harmful?

threshold effect

How long is the fetal period?

from nine weeks after conception until birth

The neural tube will become the:

brain and spinal cord

Dizygotic twins exposed to the same teratogens during pregnancy may experience:

different effects of the teratogens

Because Suzanne is pregnant, she drinks only one glass of wine a day and smokes fewer cigarettes than previously. She should be told that:

each drug might intensify the effects of the other

Very low birthweight is defined by the World Health Organization as

between 2 pounds 4 ounces and 3 pounds 5 ounces

The agent responsible for deformed limbs in the newborns in the late 1950s was

thalidomide

A teratogen is

a substance or a condition that can increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities

One of the hazards of preterm birth is:

brain bleeds

About how much weight will the average fetus gain during the last three months of gestation?

4 pounds

The germinal period ends approximately:

two weeks after conception

The longest period of prenatal development is the:

fetal period

Which statistic accurately reflects the vulnerability of prenatal development?

Only 31 percent of all conceptions become living newborn babies

Which period begins three weeks after conception?

the embryonic period

The age of viability refers to the point when the preterm newborn:

can survive outside the uterus

A distorted face with small eyes, mental retardation, and hyperactivity are all symptoms of:

fetal alcohol syndrome

Monique contracted rubella early in her pregnancy. Damage is most likely to affect the embryo's:

eyes

A condition characterized by difficulties in movement and speech that results from genetic vulnerability and anoxia during birth is:

cerebral palsy

Postpartum depression is partly influenced by:

the mother's beliefs about her ability to care for her infant

The time during labor when the fetal head descends from the uterus and is visible to the birth attendant is called:

the second stage

The percentage of newborns that will develop behavioral difficulties that could be connected to behavioral teratogens is approximately:

20 percent

Which of the following demonstrates a major difference between the United States and the rest of the world in birthing practices?

In the United States only 1 percent of births take place at home, while home births are much more common worldwide

Which country has the highest rates of C-section births in the world?

China

The critical factor in attaining the age of viability is

having adequate brain development

Margie gave birth to a 3-pound baby when she was 15 years old. The most likely reason for a teenager having a low-birthweight baby is:

inadequate nutrition during pregnancy

A common cause for SGA is

maternal drug use

The World Health Organization's definition for extremely low birthweight is weighing less than:

2 pounds 3 ounces

It is best for mother and baby if the newborn was in the womb for at least ______ weeks and weighed more than ______ grams at birth.

35; 2500

Genotype is to phenotype as

hidden is to observable

Which of the following is a major contributor to the fact that the human race has survived in spite of diseases such as malaria, the plague, and possibly even HIV?

the broad diversity of our genome

What percentage of zygotes have an abnormal number of chromosomes?

5 percent-10 percent

A gene is recessive when

its influence can be hidden by a more powerful gene

In which of the following countries is the procedure of prenatal testing to reveal sex forbidden?

China

An organism's entire genetic inheritance is referred to as its

genotype

Which of the following statements is true regarding new discoveries about genotypes and phenotypes?

Most environmental influences on children raised in the same home are not shared

______ holds that genes and environmental influences work hand in hand to eventually allow or prevent developmental behaviors.

Epigenetics

Vladimir and Catherine have three girls. They really want to have a boy with their next pregnancy. They go to a clinic for help. Which of the following procedures will most likely be performed at the clinic?

sperm-sorting before artificial insemination

What is unique about stem cells?

They have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell

Phenylketonuria is caused by a

double recessive gene

Which of the following statements is true about stem cell research?

Some restrictions on stem cell research in the United States were lifted recently

Dizygotic twins are produced when

two ova are fertilized by two different sperm at roughly the same time

Approximately how many genes are contained in the human genome?

20,000

A person's sex is determined by

the 23rd pair of chromosomes

Boys can inherit an X-linked trait from their

mother only

Research has found that early onset Alzheimer's disease is probably a result of a ______ gene, while later onset disease tends to be ______.

dominant; multifactorial

Every normal human body cell contains how many chromosomes?

23 pairs

Identify the accurate statement about genetic interaction

Some genes behave differently depending on which parent they come from

Which gene must be present on the Y chromosome to ensure the development of a male fetus?

SRY

Which of the following is important to remember when considering that genes are a major influence on behaviors, disease, and disorders?

Genes are not destiny

Each gene contains instructions for specific proteins. What makes up a protein?

amino acids

Phenotype refers to

the actual expression of genetic traits

Monozygotic twins are also known as

identical twins

Identify the accurate statement about alcoholism.

Alcoholism is entirely determined by your environment

The first hours and days of human development involve the processes of

duplication, division, and differentiation

The genetic code directs the synthesis of hundreds of different kinds of

proteins

The maximum life span for humans is _____ years.

122

Henry was adopted and is genetically predisposed toward alcoholism. However, his adoptive family does not drink; they actively avoid alcohol for religious reasons. Given Henry's genetic potential:

alcoholism might not appear in Henry's phenotype

A deletion of a small part of the ______ chromosome 15 results in Prader-Willi syndrome. The same deletion from the ______ chromosome 15 results in Angelman syndrome.

father's; mother's

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