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Herbert Hoover

nominated again without much vigor and true enthusiasm, and he campaigned saying that his policies prevented the Great Depression from being worse than it was.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

a tall, handsome man who was the fifth cousin of famous Theodore Roosevelt and had followed in his footsteps.

Eleanor

FDR's wife; only First Lady with her own statue in DC, became the most active First Lady ever

Three R's

Relief, Recovery, and Reform

Hundred Days

the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.

New Deal

the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented, the economic policy of F. D. Roosevelt

bank holiday

closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen

Fireside Chats

informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people

Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act

that provided the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) which insured individual deposits up to $5000, thereby eliminating the epidemic of bank failure and restoring faith to banks.

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions

Emergency Banking Relief Act

gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened

Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act

This provided for the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.) to insure the money in the bank.

Civilian Conservation Corps

provided employment in fresh-air government camps for about 3 million uniformed young men. They reforested areas, fought fires, drained swamps, controlled floods, etc.

Federal Emergency Relief Act

A relief effort for the unemployeed with immediate relief goals looked for immediate relief rather than long-term alleviation, and its Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was headed by the zealous Harry L. Hopkins.

Agricultural Adjustment Act

made available many millions of dollars to help farmers meet their mortgages.

Home Owners' Loan Corporation

refinanced mortgages on non-farm homes and bolted down the loyalties of middle class, Democratic homeowners.

Civil Works Administration

established late in 1933, and it was designed to provide purely temporary jobs during the winter emergency.
Many of its tasks were rather frivolous (called "boondoggling") and were designed for the sole purpose of making jobs.

Father Charles Coughlin

a Catholic priest in Michigan who at first was with FDR then disliked the New Deal and voiced his opinions on radio.

Huey P. Long

popular for his "Share the Wealth" program.

Share the Wealth

Proposing "every man a king," each family was to receive $5000, allegedly from the rich. The math of the plan was ludicrous.

Dr. Francis E. Townsend

attracted the trusting support of perhaps 5 million "senior citizens" with his fantastic plan of each senior receiving $200 month, provided that all of it would be spent within the month. Also, this was a mathematically silly plan.

Works Progress Administration

which put $11 million on thousands of public buildings, bridges, and hard-surfaced roads and gave 9 million people jobs in its eight years of existence.

Pearl S. Buck

wrote a beautiful and timeless novel, The Good Earth, about a simple Chinese farmer which earned her the Nobel Prize for literature in 1938.

National Recovery Administration

by far the most complicated of the programs, was designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed.
There were maximum hours of labor, minimum wages, and more rights for labor union members, including the right to choose their own representatives in bargaining.

Public Works Administration

intended both for industrial recovery and for unemployment relief.
Headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery by spending over $4 billion on some 34,000 projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways (i.e. the Grand Coulee Dam of the Columbia River).

Dust Bowl

forced many farmers to migrate west to California and inspired Steinbeck's classic The Grapes of Wrath.
The dust was very hazardous to the health and to living, creating further misery.

Dawes Act of 1887

offered land and US citizenship to any head of an Indian family who would take up Farming or ranching

Indian Reorganization Act

(the Indian "New Deal"), which encouraged tribes to preserve their culture and traditions.
Not all Indians liked it though, saying if they followed this "back-to-the-blanket" plan, they'd just become museum exhibits. 77 tribes refused to organize under its provisions (200 did).

Securities and Exchange Commission

was designed as a stock watchdog administrative agency, and stock markets henceforth were to operate more as trading marts than as casinos.

Tennessee Valley Authority

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.

Social Security Act

guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

Wagner Act

guaranteed the right of unions to organize and to collectively bargain with management.

John L. Lewis

the boss of the United Mine Workers who also succeeded in forming the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) within the ranks of the AF of L in 1935.

Committee for Industrial Organization

set up to organize unions that included all workers in a particular industry

Fair Labor Standards Act

setting up minimum wage and maximum hours standards and forbidding children under the age of sixteen from working.

court-packing scheme

proposal by FDR allowed president to appoint new Supreme Court justices, totaling 6 in all. (FAILED)

Roosevelt Recession

1937 economic downturn caused by sound fiscal policy due to cut spending and higher taxes

John Maynard Keynes

English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)

Hatch Act

barred federal administrative officials, except the highest policy-making officers, from active political campaigning and soliciting.

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