the concept of reducing a problem to its fundamental principles
segment of a DNA molecule that contains the code for manufacturing a particular type of protein molecule
True or false: Environmental experiences can activate genes and thereby alter the individual's brain and behavior (answer on pg. 51).
the set of genes (genome) that an individual inherits; an individual's genetic composition
the observable properties of an individual's body and behavioral traits
True or false: Two individuals with the same genotype are identical in phenotype (answer on pg 51)
A trait is _____________ if multiple genes contribute to the variation in the phenotype. Such a trait usually exhibits continuous variation.
Cell division in which daughter cells are genetically identical
Cell division that produces genetically different daughter cells; this cell division occurs when cells divide to produce gametes.
True or false: All somatic cells in the body are genetically identical, but exhibit phenotypic variation that arises from the differential activation of their genes.
True or false: novel mutations are often deleterious
refers to the location of a gene on a chromosome
True or false: Some behavioral traits can have single-gene (Mendelian) patterns of inheritance. (answer on pg 55)
True or false: Scott and Fuller found evidence that the difference in fearfulness between purebred cocker puppies and purebred basenji puppies is controlled by a single gene locus, with the allele promoting fear dominant to the allele promoting confidence. Therefore, they proved that fear in dogs, in all its various forms, is caused by a single gene. (answer on pg 56)
Phenotypes that can be sharply differentiated from one another are _____________ traits. These occur due to variation at a single gene locus.
Phenotypes that cannot be sorted into categories and vary over a range of degrees are ____________ traits.
Most often, the range of phenotypes that a population exhibits for a certain trait approximates a ___________ distribution.
the act of mating of individuals that manifest a particular characteristic in order to affect the genetic makeup of future generations
human-controlled selective breeding
selective breeding that occurs in nature
an error that can occasionally an unpredictably occur during DNA replication, causing the copy to be different from the original
inheritance of acquired characteristics
the idea that changes in an individual that stem from practice or experience can be inherited by the individual's offspring; supported by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
True or false: Evolution can produce phenotypic changes in organisms that is meant for some future purpose, despite their usefulness at the time when the change occurs
The proportion of the variability in a particular characteristic, in a particular group of individuals, that is due solely to genetic differences. This measures the extent of genetic influence on phenotype.
Heritability does not apply to individuals; it applies to _____________.
twin studies, adoption studies
The two most common types of studies that provide insight to genetic AND environmental contributions to behavior.
True or false: Identical twins can vary GENETICALLY in subtle ways.
the attempt to explain behavior in terms of what it accomplishes for the behaving individual
functional explanations of a behavior at the evolutionary level -- these state the role that the behavior plays in the organism's survival and reproduction
functional explanations of a behavior that deal with the mechanism of how the behavior is triggered -- these state immediate conditions, both inside and outside the animal, that bring on the behavior
True or false: all of the complex biological mechanisms underlying human behavior and experience are products of evolution by natural selection (answer on pg 65)
True or false: Every trait that evolved in organisms serves a useful function. (answer on pg 66)
Traits that evolved to serve the needs of our ancestors that are no longer functional today
variation in the gene pool of a small population due to chance alone without selection. Tends to reduce genetic variation.
True or false: since our basic behavioral tendencies evolved because they promoted survival and reproduction overall, then all instances of the behavior serves survival or reproductive ends. (answer on pg 67)
any behavioral pattern that is so characteristic of a given species of animal that it can be used to help identify that species
True or false: humans' basic emotional expressions are species-typical, even though they can be affected by learning (answer on pg 70)
Some species-typical behaviors require specific learning experiences to develop normally (answer on pg 70)
any similarity between multiple species that exists because of the different species' common ancestry
any similarity between multiple species that stems not from common ancestry, but convergent evolution
evolution that occurs when different species, due to some similarity in their habitats or lifestyles, independently evolve a common characteristic
one male mates with more than one female
one female mates with more than one male
one male mates with one female
members of a group consisting of more than one male and more than one female mate with one another
mating patterns in species depend on differences in the amount of _____________________ that each sex contributes to raising their young
In general, for species in which parental investment is unequal, the parental sex that must invest _______ in the offspring will be more vigorously competed for and be more discriminating than the other sex when choosing mates. (answer on pg 76)
True or false: the more polygynous a species, the smaller is the average size difference between males and females. (answer on pg 78)
the time, energy, and risk to survival that are involved in producing, feeding, and otherwise caring for an offspring
refers to fighting and threats of fighting among members of the same species
True or false: among MOST primates, males are much more violently aggressive than females, and most violence perpetrated by the males has to do directly or indirectly with sex. (answer on pg 83)
True or false: among ALL primates, males are much more violently aggressive than females, and most violence perpetrated by the males has to do directly or indirectly with sex. (answer on pg 84)
any behavior that increases the survival chance or reproductive capacity of another individual
a behavior in which an individual helps another while helping itself
a behavior in which an individual helps another while decreasing its own survival chance or reproductive capacity
kin selection theory
theory stating that behavior that seems altruistic came about through natural selection because it preferentially helps close relatives, who are genetically most similar to the helper
the selective aiding of kin in humans
theory stating that behaviors that seem altruistic are actually forms of long-term cooperation
the false assumption that what is "natural" is "moral" or "right"
the false assumption that since genes influence on our behavior, they must also control our behavior, and therefore we can do nothing to modify our own behavior.
In natural selection, changes in genotype or phenotype are __________, but selection for or against these changes is not, because this depends on the environment in which the changes occurred.
The "goal" of a species subject to natural selection is survival in order to _________________.
Males, on average, seek ________ times as many sexual partners as females do.
True or False: Females are more likely than males to mate with the opposite sex after knowing the person for a shorter period of time.
True or False: In short-term and long-term mating, human males prefer sexual partners who are shorter than themselves, while females prefer taller sexual partners.
True or False: In short term and long term mating human males have no preference as to whether their sexual partners are older or younger than them.
True or False: Human females tend to prefer sexual partners, both short-term and long-term, who are older than themselves because they must depend on their partners for acquiring resources.
True or False: While physical attractiveness of the opposite sex is important to both males and females during short term and long term mating, it is given more weight in short-term mating.
True or False: In both short term and long term mating, physical attractiveness of the opposite sex is more important to females than it is to males.
do, do not
In short-term mating, males _____ prefer sexually promiscuous females because males have an increased chance of mating with these females. In long-term mating, males _______ prefer sexually promiscuous females because males are concerned with paternity confidence.
True or False: In other cultures, females do not mind as much as females in Western cultures if their husbands are sexually unfaithful, just as long as their husbands faithfully provide economic resources.
True or False: In long term mating, it is more important to females than to males that the sexual partner makes good money.
True or False: In short term mating, females usually evaluate their sexual partner for long-term potential. This affects females' short-term mating preferences.
True of False: Males and females have an equal preference for long term mates who are good with children.
True or False: In short-term mating, the intelligence of the sexual partner is more important to females than it is to males.
True or False: In short term mating, the male's priorities and concerns include increasing his number of sexual partners, identifying sexually accessible women, minimizing cost/risk/commitment, and female fertility
True or False: In short term mating, the female's priorities and concerns include the gene quality of her sexual partner, immediate resource extraction, evaluation of her sexual partner for long-term potential, and problems of mat switching/ mate expulsion/ mate backup.
True or False: When seeking and evaluating long-term mates, the priorities and concerns of males and females are not very similar.
The ________________ of an individual is a summary of the desirability of an organism as a mate, rated on a scale of 1 to 10. This value is reliable and valid.
True or False: Mate values accurately predict short term mating in females.
Self esteem predicts short term mating in females.
True or false: self esteem predicts short term mating in males.
True of False: mate values predict short term mating in males.
Scientist who found that children who had the gene for low MAO activity were more susceptible to the effects of maltreatment from their parents.