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Tears are considered to be part of the

first line of defense
nonspecific defenses

A specific defense for the body is

sensitized T-lymphocytes

The inflammatory response is a nonspecific response to

any tissue injury

Chemical mediators released during the inflammatory response include

histamine & prostoglandins

Which of the following result directly from the release of chemical mediators following a moderate burn injury?

pain
increased cappilary permiability

Granuloma

a small mass of cells with a necrotic center, which may develop as part of the immune response

Edema associated with inflammation results directly from

increased fluid and protein in the interstitial compartment

The warmth and redness related to the inflammatory response results from:

increased blood flow into the area

Order of inflammatory response immediately after tissue injury

1.Transient vasoconstriction
2.Dilation of blood vessels
3.Hyperemia
4. Increased permeability of blood vessels
5. Migration of leukocytes to the area

The process of phagocytes involves the

Ingestion of foreign material and cell debris by leukocytes

Systemic effects of severe inflammation include

fatigue, anorexia and mild fever

Leukocytosis

increased white blood cells in the blood

Which of the following statements applies to fever?

it results from the release of pyrogens into the circulation

Mechanisms to bring an elevated body temperature down to the normal level include

general cutaneous vasodilation

Replacement of damaged tissue by similar functional cells is

regeneration

Scar tissue consists primarily of

collagen fibers

Which of the following promotes rapid healing?

closely approximated edges of a wound

Which of the following is the best description of granulation tissue?

fibroblast and vascular endothelial cells

Glucocorticoids are used to treat inflammation because they directly

decrease capillary permeability

Patients take glucocorticoids for long periods of time are NOT going to develop

increased leukocyte production

Which of the following drugs relieves fever and some types of pain but is NOT an anti-inflammatory agent?

Acetaminophen

A burn area in which the epidermis and part of the dermis is destroyed is classified as

deep partial-thickness

A woman has burns on the anterior surfaces of her right arm, chest, and right leg. The body surface area (BSA) or the percentage of body surface area burned is approximately

22.5%

The characteristic appearance of a full-thickness burn is

dry, firm, charred or hard white surface

A major source of infection in burn areas is

microbes surviving in the hair follicles in the burn area

A large burn area predisposes to decreased blood pressure because

fluid and protein shift out of the vascular compartment

During an inflammatory response, erythema is caused by

vasodilation in the area

The advantages of applying a biosynthetic skin substitute to a large area of full-thickness burns includes:

reduced risk of infection
decreased loss of plasma protein and fluid
more rapid healing

Purulent exudates usually contain

numerous leukocytes, bacteria and cell debris

Isoenzymes in the circulating blood

often indicate the precise location of inflammatory response

A serous exudate is best described as a

thin, watery, colorless exudate

Systematic manifestations of an inflammatory response include

elevated C-reactive protein & leukocytosis

Indicators of a general inflammatory response would include

elevated C-reactive protein

Prolonged administration of glucocorticoids such as predistones may cause

atrophy of lymphoid tissue
decreased protein synthesis

Application of ice to an injured knee reduces edema by

causing local vasoconstriction

Healing of large areas of skin loss (including dermis and epidermis) would be most successful through

covering the area with biosynthetic skin substitute

Prostoglandins are produced from ____ and cause ____

mast cells; vasodilation and pain

The number of neutrophils in the blood is increased significantly

in order to promote phagocytosis

An abcess contains

purulent exudates

Nonspecific agents that protect uninfected cells against viruses are called

interferons

Causes of inflammation include

direct physical damage such as cuts & sprains
ischemia or infarction
allergic reactions
infection

In normal capillary exchange, what is net hydrostatic pressure based on?

the difference between the hydrostatic pressure within the capillary as compared with the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid

The cardinal signs of inflammation include all EXCEPT

nausea

Drugs that have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities include:

COX-2 indicators (NSAIDs)
ibuprofen (NSAIDs)
aspirin (ASA)

Aspirin (ASA) is discouraged for treatment of viral infections in children because of:

the risk of developing Rye's syndrome

Systemic manifestations of inflammation include all EXCEPT

chest pain

Which of the following cellular elements found in the inflammatory response are responsible for phagocytes?

macrophages

Which chemical mediator is involved in prolonging the inflammatory response?

leukotrienes

Potential complications after healing by scar formation include all the following EXCEPT

increased hair growth

All of the following are correct statements regarding wound healing EXCEPT

granulation tissue forms a permanent replacement for damaged tissue

Which of the following statements regarding inflammation is incorrect?

disorders are named using the ending -sarcoma to indicate inflammation

Which of the following helps to localize and contain the foreign material during an inflammatory response?

fibrinogen

Why is an application of cold recommended as part of the RICE first aid measures immediately following an inflammatory response due to injury? Because cold

causes local vasoconstriction to reduce local edema

One goal for current research in tissue engineering is to

create a functional replacement tissue when regeneration is not possible

Identify the proper sequence in the healing process

1. a blood clot forms
2. phagocytes remove foreign material and cell debris
3. granulation tissue grows into the gap
4. new blood vessels form
5. collagen fibers promote formation of a tight strong scar

All are factors that promote healing EXCEPT

advanced age

Identify the correct statements about burns

the severity of the burn depends on the temperature and the duration and extent of the burn

Which statement applies to the recommended emergency care for burns?

cover the burn area with clean, cool or tapid water and remove nonsticking clothing

Inhalation of carbon monoxide is a threat for many burn patients because this gas:

quickly reduces the available oxygen in the blood

Hypermetabolism is common with major burns because of:

increased heat loss from the burn wound
demand for tissue repair
recurrent stress response

How does scar tissue usually cause obstructions to develop in tube-like structures?

scar tissue does not stretch, but rather shrinks in time, causing narrowing

Which of the following is a serious potential complication found only with the anti-inflammatory COX-2 inhibitor drugs?

increased incidence of heart attacks and strokes

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