A female manager is attempting to climb her way to the top of the corporate ladder. She works as hard, if not harder, than her male colleagues, but nothing she seems to do helps her advance. She begins to notice that males are being promoted, but females tend to be over looked for advancements. If this woman realizes that many women in her circumstance are experiencing the same discrimination, we would say that she has started to acquire _________.
Sociologists and economists have shown that the benefits of higher education include higher median incomes for college graduates. This is known as ______.
The returns to schooling
According to Randall Collin's (1979) research, the expansion of higher education is _______.
A result of credentialism and expenditures on formal education
Positivism is best defined as __________.
The idea that we can scientifically and logically study social institutions and the individuals within them
Which of the three historical epistemological stages of human society did Comte explain was highlighted by Enlightenment thinking such as R. and Hobbes's beliefs in biological causes for human behavior?
The metaphysical stage
Which of the following are known as "the founding fathers of the sociological discipline"?
Durkheim, Marx, and Weber
To Marx, conflict between a small number of capitalists and a large number of workers would divide society. Her referred to this large number of workers as _____.
Karl Marx would argue that the types of social institutions in a society were the result of the economic makeup of that society. Max Weber, however, argued that______.
There are multiple influences (e.g., religion) on how social institutions are created
The author of the The Protestant Ethic and the Sprit of Capitalism argued that sociologists should study social behavior from the perspective of the people engaging in it. This is known as ______.
According to the theory of social solidarity, the division of labor in a society helps to determine ______.
The way social cohesion among individuals is maintained
According to Suicide, one of the main social forces leading to suicide is a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in society. This normlessness was called________.
The Chicago School's main laboratory for sociological research was=________.
The city of Chicago itself
"If men define situations as real they are real in their consequences" is the theory of which of the following Chicago School theorists?
W. I. Thomas
Which of the following modern sociological theories states that the best way to analyze society is to identify the purpose that different aspects of phenomena play in the overall structure of society?
In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx's belief that completion, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?
The two words that might describe the difference between conflict theory and functionalism are _______.
Competition versus consensus
Which modern sociological theory examines how power relationships are defined, shaped, and reproduced on the basis of gender differences?
Which modern sociological theory explains social behavior by examining the meanings that social signals and signs represent to individuals?
Postmodern sociologists argue that all so-called objective phenomena are open to debate because all meaning is subjective. Thus, to postmodernists, all "facts" are really _______.
Economists tend to see humans as __________, but sociologists would tend to include _______:
Rational actors; emotional motivations.
Which of the following focuses its analyses on face-to-face encounters and interactions?
Which of the following focuses its analyses on larger social dynamics at the societal and structural levels?
The research method that uses statistical analysis to describe the social world is
What type of research describes people's behavior in rich detail and focuses on the meanings people give to their actions?
If Kate begins her research with a theory, then forms hypotheses and makes some observations, what method is she using?
Because they are an accessible population, sociologists sometimes use undergraduate students in their research. In relation to the concept of generalizability in science, this tendency could represent a potential defect in research because:
College undergraduates are not typical of the public at large
Which of the following is an example of correlation?
People with higher levels of income tend to enjoy better overall health
Andy hypothesized that the stress created during economic downturns would increase the probability of spousal abuse. Stress would be considered the ____ variable, and spousal abuse would be considered the ____ variable.
To define a term in such a way so that it can be examined and measured is the process known as
The extent to which a researcher can claim that his or her findings explain a larger population than was studied is known as
What is the meaning of the term "white coat" effects in social research?
The impact researchers may have on the people/relationships they study
Which of the following might be an advantage of participant observation research?
The researcher can uncover what people "do" rather than simply what they say they "do"
Perhaps the most difficult method to apply to the social sciences, as compared with laboratory- based natural sciences, is:
Research subjects have a right to know that they are participating in a study and what the study consists of. This is known as:
Follow-up interviews showed that prison guards generally felt ____ the experiment, while the prisoners felt ______ the experiment
Empowered by, dehumanized by
During the 1800s culture was defined by Matthew Arnold as an ideal, something that is opposed to the real world in which we live. Sociologist today define culture as:
The sum total of beliefs, behaviors and practices that humans create to adapt to the environment around them.
The rapid social changes in Europe, particularly in Great Britain during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, were mainly due to:
Everything in our constructed environment, including technology, buildings, furniture, clothing, and books, is part of:
A type of nonmaterial culture known as ____ is a system of concepts and relationships sometimes used to understand cause and effect.
Which of the following is true regarding the value of high versus low culture?
Both are equally valuable depending upon one's perspective
While they are difficult to define, ________ are smaller subgroups within a larger dominant society that share some of the dominant culture values, but also have some of their own, unique material and nonmaterial or symbolic culture
If you are a member of a subculture, like the Goth subculture, you can be sure that the meaning of certain words and the behavior of the members:
Can be different within the group
Stanley Lieberson, a sociology professor at Harvard, studied culture using fist names. He found that names:
Reflect cultural trends of specific times
Class mobility and equal opportunity have their roots in:
The United States' idea of the American Dream.
Ruth Benedic, in her Patterns of Culture (1934), coined the term relativism, which means:
Taking into account the differences across cultures without passing judgment or assigning value