Pharmacology NCLEX Questions

64 terms by Farmer29

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

NCLEX-PN style study questions

27.) Sildenafil (Viagra) is prescribed to treat a client with erectile dysfunction. A nurse reviews the client's medical record and would question the prescription if which of the following is noted in the client's history?
1. Neuralgia
2. Insomnia
3. Use of nitroglycerin
4. Use of multivitamins

3. Use of nitroglycerin
Rationale:
Sildenafil (Viagra) enhances the vasodilating effect of nitric oxide in the corpus cavernosum of the penis, thus sustaining an erection. Because of the effect of the medication, it is contraindicated with concurrent use of organic nitrates and nitroglycerin. Sildenafil is not contraindicated with the use of vitamins. Neuralgia and insomnia are side effects of the medication.

54.) A nurse reinforces discharge instructions to a postoperative client who is taking warfarin sodium (Coumadin). Which statement, if made by the client, reflects the need for further teaching?
1. "I will take my pills every day at the same time."
2. "I will be certain to avoid alcohol consumption."
3. "I have already called my family to pick up a Medic-Alert bracelet."
4. "I will take Ecotrin (enteric-coated aspirin) for my headaches because it is coated."

4. "I will take Ecotrin (enteric-coated aspirin) for my headaches because it is coated."
Rationale:
Ecotrin is an aspirin-containing product and should be avoided. Alcohol consumption should be avoided by a client taking warfarin sodium. Taking prescribed medication at the same time each day increases client compliance. The Medic-Alert bracelet provides health care personnel emergency information.

55.) A client who is receiving digoxin (Lanoxin) daily has a serum potassium level of 3.0 mEq/L and is complaining of anorexia. A health care provider prescribes a digoxin level to rule out digoxin toxicity. A nurse checks the results, knowing that which of the following is the therapeutic serum level (range) for digoxin?
1. 3 to 5 ng/mL
2. 0.5 to 2 ng/mL
3. 1.2 to 2.8 ng/mL
4. 3.5 to 5.5 ng/mL

2.) 0.5 to 2 ng/mL
Rationale:
Therapeutic levels for digoxin range from 0.5 to 2 ng/mL. Therefore, options 1, 3, and 4 are incorrect.

56.) Heparin sodium is prescribed for the client. The nurse expects that the health care provider will prescribe which of the following to monitor for a therapeutic effect of the medication?
1. Hematocrit level
2. Hemoglobin level
3. Prothrombin time (PT)
4. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)

4. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT)
Rationale:
The PT will assess for the therapeutic effect of warfarin sodium (Coumadin) and the aPTT will assess the therapeutic effect of heparin sodium. Heparin sodium doses are determined based on these laboratory results. The hemoglobin and hematocrit values assess red blood cell concentrations.

57.) A nurse is monitoring a client who is taking propranolol (Inderal LA). Which data collection finding would indicate a potential serious complication associated with propranolol?
1. The development of complaints of insomnia
2. The development of audible expiratory wheezes
3. A baseline blood pressure of 150/80 mm Hg followed by a blood pressure of 138/72 mm Hg after two doses of the medication
4. A baseline resting heart rate of 88 beats/min followed by a resting heart rate of 72 beats/min after two doses of the medication

2. The development of audible expiratory wheezes
Rationale:
Audible expiratory wheezes may indicate a serious adverse reaction, bronchospasm. β-Blockers may induce this reaction, particularly in clients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. Normal decreases in blood pressure and heart rate are expected. Insomnia is a frequent mild side effect and should be monitored.

70.) Oxybutynin chloride (Ditropan XL) is prescribed for a client with neurogenic bladder. Which sign would indicate a possible toxic effect related to this medication?
1. Pallor
2. Drowsiness
3. Bradycardia
4. Restlessness

4. Restlessness
Rationale:
Toxicity (overdosage) of this medication produces central nervous system excitation, such as nervousness, restlessness, hallucinations, and irritability. Other signs of toxicity include hypotension or hypertension, confusion, tachycardia, flushed or red face, and signs of respiratory depression. Drowsiness is a frequent side effect of the medication but does not indicate overdosage.

73.) A client with myasthenia gravis is suspected of having cholinergic crisis. Which of the following indicate that this crisis exists?
1. Ataxia
2. Mouth sores
3. Hypotension
4. Hypertension

4. Hypertension
Rationale:
Cholinergic crisis occurs as a result of an overdose of medication. Indications of cholinergic crisis include gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, increased salivation and tearing, miosis, hypertension, sweating, and increased bronchial secretions.

74.) A client with myasthenia gravis is receiving pyridostigmine (Mestinon). The nurse monitors for signs and symptoms of cholinergic crisis caused by overdose of the medication. The nurse checks the medication supply to ensure that which medication is available for administration if a cholinergic crisis occurs?
1. Vitamin K
2. Atropine sulfate
3. Protamine sulfate
4. Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)

2. Atropine sulfate
Rationale:
The antidote for cholinergic crisis is atropine sulfate. Vitamin K is the antidote for warfarin (Coumadin). Protamine sulfate is the antidote for heparin, and acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) is the antidote for acetaminophen (Tylenol).

76.) Carbidopa-levodopa (Sinemet) is prescribed for a client with Parkinson's disease, and the nurse monitors the client for adverse reactions to the medication. Which of the following indicates that the client is experiencing an adverse reaction?
1. Pruritus
2. Tachycardia
3. Hypertension
4. Impaired voluntary movements

4. Impaired voluntary movements
Rationale:
Dyskinesia and impaired voluntary movement may occur with high levodopa dosages. Nausea, anorexia, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, and akinesia (the temporary muscle weakness that lasts 1 minute to 1 hour, also known as the "on-off phenomenon") are frequent side effects of the medication.

77.) Phenytoin (Dilantin), 100 mg orally three times daily, has been prescribed for a client for seizure control. The nurse reinforces instructions regarding the medication to the client. Which statement by the client indicates an understanding of the instructions?
1. "I will use a soft toothbrush to brush my teeth."
2. "It's all right to break the capsules to make it easier for me to swallow them."
3. "If I forget to take my medication, I can wait until the next dose and eliminate that dose."
4. "If my throat becomes sore, it's a normal effect of the medication and it's nothing to be concerned about."

1. "I will use a soft toothbrush to brush my teeth."
Rationale:
Phenytoin (Dilantin) is an anticonvulsant. Gingival hyperplasia, bleeding, swelling, and tenderness of the gums can occur with the use of this medication. The client needs to be taught good oral hygiene, gum massage, and the need for regular dentist visits. The client should not skip medication doses, because this could precipitate a seizure. Capsules should not be chewed or broken and they must be swallowed. The client needs to be instructed to report a sore throat, fever, glandular swelling, or any skin reaction, because this indicates hematological toxicity.

78.) A client is taking phenytoin (Dilantin) for seizure control and a sample for a serum drug level is drawn. Which of the following indicates a therapeutic serum drug range?
1. 5 to 10 mcg/mL
2. 10 to 20 mcg/mL
3. 20 to 30 mcg/mL
4. 30 to 40 mcg/mL

2. 10 to 20 mcg/mL
Rationale:
The therapeutic serum drug level range for phenytoin (Dilantin) is 10 to 20 mcg/mL.
* A helpful hint may be to remember that the theophylline therapeutic range and the acetaminophen (Tylenol) therapeutic range are the same as the phenytoin (Dilantin) therapeutic range.*

79.) Ibuprofen (Advil) is prescribed for a client. The nurse tells the client to take the medication:
1. With 8 oz of milk
2. In the morning after arising
3. 60 minutes before breakfast
4. At bedtime on an empty stomach

1. With 8 oz of milk
Rationale:
Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). NSAIDs should be given with milk or food to prevent gastrointestinal irritation. Options 2, 3, and 4 are incorrect.

80.) A nurse is caring for a client who is taking phenytoin (Dilantin) for control of seizures. During data collection, the nurse notes that the client is taking birth control pills. Which of the following information should the nurse provide to the client?
1. Pregnancy should be avoided while taking phenytoin (Dilantin).
2. The client may stop taking the phenytoin (Dilantin) if it is causing severe gastrointestinal effects.
3. The potential for decreased effectiveness of the birth control pills exists while taking phenytoin (Dilantin).
4. The increased risk of thrombophlebitis exists while taking phenytoin (Dilantin) and birth control pills together.

3. The potential for decreased effectiveness of the birth control pills exists while taking phenytoin (Dilantin).
Rationale:
Phenytoin (Dilantin) enhances the rate of estrogen metabolism, which can decrease the effectiveness of some birth control pills. Options 1, 2, are 4 are not accurate.

81.) A client with trigeminal neuralgia is being treated with carbamazepine (Tegretol). Which laboratory result would indicate that the client is experiencing an adverse reaction to the medication?
1. Sodium level, 140 mEq/L
2. Uric acid level, 5.0 mg/dL
3. White blood cell count, 3000 cells/mm3
4. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level, 15 mg/dL

3. White blood cell count, 3000 cells/mm3
Rationale:
Adverse effects of carbamazepine (Tegretol) appear as blood dyscrasias, including aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, cardiovascular disturbances, thrombophlebitis, dysrhythmias, and dermatological effects. Options 1, 2, and 4 identify normal laboratory values.

82.) A client is receiving meperidine hydrochloride (Demerol) for pain. Which of the following are side effects of this medication. Select all that apply.
1. Diarrhea
2. Tremors
3. Drowsiness
4. Hypotension
5. Urinary frequency
6. Increased respiratory rate

2. Tremors
3. Drowsiness
4. Hypotension
Rationale:
Meperidine hydrochloride is an opioid analgesic. Side effects include respiratory depression, drowsiness, hypotension, constipation, urinary retention, nausea, vomiting, and tremors.

88.) Dantrolene sodium (Dantrium) is prescribed for a client experiencing flexor spasms, and the client asks the nurse about the action of the medication. The nurse responds, knowing that the therapeutic action of this medication is which of the following?
1. Depresses spinal reflexes
2. Acts directly on the skeletal muscle to relieve spasticity
3. Acts within the spinal cord to suppress hyperactive reflexes
4. Acts on the central nervous system (CNS) to suppress spasms

2. Acts directly on the skeletal muscle to relieve spasticity
Rationale:
Dantrium acts directly on skeletal muscle to relieve muscle spasticity. The primary action is the suppression of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This in turn decreases the ability of the skeletal muscle to contract.
*Options 1, 3, and 4 are all comparable or alike in that they address CNS suppression and the depression of reflexes. Therefore, eliminate these options.*

89.) A nurse is reviewing the laboratory studies on a client receiving dantrolene sodium (Dantrium). Which laboratory test would identify an adverse effect associated with the administration of this medication?
1. Creatinine
2. Liver function tests
3. Blood urea nitrogen
4. Hematological function tests

2. Liver function tests
Rationale:
Dose-related liver damage is the most serious adverse effect of dantrolene. To reduce the risk of liver damage, liver function tests should be performed before treatment and periodically throughout the treatment course. It is administered in the lowest effective dosage for the shortest time necessary.
*Eliminate options 1 and 3 because these tests both assess kidney function.*

91.) Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) is prescribed for a client to treat muscle spasms, and the nurse is reviewing the client's record. Which of the following disorders, if noted in the client's record, would indicate a need to contact the health care provider regarding the administration of this medication?
1. Glaucoma
2. Emphysema
3. Hyperthyroidism
4. Diabetes mellitus

1. Glaucoma
Rationale:
Because this medication has anticholinergic effects, it should be used with caution in clients with a history of urinary retention, angle-closure glaucoma, and increased intraocular pressure. Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride should be used only for short-term 2- to 3-week therapy.

104.) Disulfiram (Antabuse) is prescribed for a client who is seen in the psychiatric health care clinic. The nurse is collecting data on the client and is providing instructions regarding the use of this medication. Which is most important for the nurse to determine before administration of this medication?
1. A history of hyperthyroidism
2. A history of diabetes insipidus
3. When the last full meal was consumed
4. When the last alcoholic drink was consumed

4. When the last alcoholic drink was consumed
Rationale:
Disulfiram is used as an adjunct treatment for selected clients with chronic alcoholism who want to remain in a state of enforced sobriety. Clients must abstain from alcohol intake for at least 12 hours before the initial dose of the medication is administered. The most important data are to determine when the last alcoholic drink was consumed. The medication is used with caution in clients with diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, epilepsy, cerebral damage, nephritis, and hepatic disease. It is also contraindicated in severe heart disease, psychosis, or hypersensitivity related to the medication.

105.) A nurse is collecting data from a client and the client's spouse reports that the client is taking donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept). Which disorder would the nurse suspect that this client may have based on the use of this medication?
1. Dementia
2. Schizophrenia
3. Seizure disorder
4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

1. Dementia
Rationale:
Donepezil hydrochloride is a cholinergic agent used in the treatment of mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer type. It enhances cholinergic functions by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine. It slows the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Options 2, 3, and 4 are incorrect.

106.) Fluoxetine (Prozac) is prescribed for the client. The nurse reinforces instructions to the client regarding the administration of the medication. Which statement by the client indicates an understanding about administration of the medication?
1. "I should take the medication with my evening meal."
2. "I should take the medication at noon with an antacid."
3. "I should take the medication in the morning when I first arise."
4. "I should take the medication right before bedtime with a snack."

3. "I should take the medication in the morning when I first arise."
Rationale:
Fluoxetine hydrochloride is administered in the early morning without consideration to meals.
*Eliminate options 1, 2, and 4 because they are comparable or alike and indicate taking the medication with an antacid or food.*

107.) A client receiving a tricyclic antidepressant arrives at the mental health clinic. Which observation indicates that the client is correctly following the medication plan?
1. Reports not going to work for this past week
2. Complains of not being able to "do anything" anymore
3. Arrives at the clinic neat and appropriate in appearance
4. Reports sleeping 12 hours per night and 3 to 4 hours during the day

3. Arrives at the clinic neat and appropriate in appearance
Rationale:
Depressed individuals will sleep for long periods, are not able to go to work, and feel as if they cannot "do anything." Once they have had some therapeutic effect from their medication, they will report resolution of many of these complaints as well as demonstrate an improvement in their appearance.

108.) A nurse is performing a follow-up teaching session with a client discharged 1 month ago who is taking fluoxetine (Prozac). What information would be important for the nurse to gather regarding the adverse effects related to the medication?
1. Cardiovascular symptoms
2. Gastrointestinal dysfunctions
3. Problems with mouth dryness
4. Problems with excessive sweating

2. Gastrointestinal dysfunctions
Rationale:
The most common adverse effects related to fluoxetine include central nervous system (CNS) and gastrointestinal (GI) system dysfunction. This medication affects the GI system by causing nausea and vomiting, cramping, and diarrhea. Options 1, 3, and 4 are not adverse effects of this medication.

109.) A client taking buspirone (BuSpar) for 1 month returns to the clinic for a follow-up visit. Which of the following would indicate medication effectiveness?
1. No rapid heartbeats or anxiety
2. No paranoid thought processes
3. No thought broadcasting or delusions
4. No reports of alcohol withdrawal symptoms

1. No rapid heartbeats or anxiety
Rationale:
Buspirone hydrochloride is not recommended for the treatment of drug or alcohol withdrawal, paranoid thought disorders, or schizophrenia (thought broadcasting or delusions). Buspirone hydrochloride is most often indicated for the treatment of anxiety and aggression.

111.) A client arrives at the health care clinic and tells the nurse that he has been doubling his daily dosage of bupropion hydrochloride (Wellbutrin) to help him get better faster. The nurse understands that the client is now at risk for which of the following?
1. Insomnia
2. Weight gain
3. Seizure activity
4. Orthostatic hypotension

3. Seizure activity
Rationale:
Bupropion does not cause significant orthostatic blood pressure changes. Seizure activity is common in dosages greater than 450 mg daily. Bupropion frequently causes a drop in body weight. Insomnia is a side effect, but seizure activity causes a greater client risk.

112.) A hospitalized client is started on phenelzine sulfate (Nardil) for the treatment of depression. The nurse instructs the client to avoid consuming which foods while taking this medication? Select all that apply.
1. Figs
2. Yogurt
3. Crackers
4. Aged cheese
5 Tossed salad
6. Oatmeal cookies

1. Figs
2. Yogurt
4. Aged cheese
Rationale:
Phenelzine sulfate (Nardil) is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor(MAOI). The client should avoid taking in foods that are high in tyramine. Use of these foods could trigger a potentially fatal hypertensive crisis. Some foods to avoid include yogurt, aged cheeses, smoked or processed meats, red wines, and fruits such as avocados, raisins, and figs.

119.) A client with diabetes mellitus who has been controlled with daily insulin has been placed on atenolol (Tenormin) for the control of angina pectoris. Because of the effects of atenolol, the nurse determines that which of the following is the most reliable indicator of hypoglycemia?
1. Sweating
2. Tachycardia
3. Nervousness
4. Low blood glucose level

4. Low blood glucose level
Rationale:
β-Adrenergic blocking agents, such as atenolol, inhibit the appearance of signs and symptoms of acute hypoglycemia, which would include nervousness, increased heart rate, and sweating. Therefore, the client receiving this medication should adhere to the therapeutic regimen and monitor blood glucose levels carefully. Option 4 is the most reliable indicator of hypoglycemia.

125.) A nurse is preparing to administer digoxin (Lanoxin), 0.125 mg orally, to a client with heart failure. Which vital sign is most important for the nurse to check before administering the medication?
1. Heart rate
2. Temperature
3. Respirations
4. Blood pressure

1. Heart rate
Rationale:
Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside that is used to treat heart failure and acts by increasing the force of myocardial contraction. Because bradycardia may be a clinical sign of toxicity, the nurse counts the apical heart rate for 1 full minute before administering the medication. If the pulse rate is less than 60 beats/minute in an adult client, the nurse would withhold the medication and report the pulse rate to the registered nurse, who would then contact the health care provider.

126.) A nurse is caring for a client who has been prescribed furosemide (Lasix) and is monitoring for adverse effects associated with this medication. Which of the following should the nurse recognize as a potential adverse effect Select all that apply.
1. Nausea
2. Tinnitus
3. Hypotension
4. Hypokalemia
5. Photosensitivity
6. Increased urinary frequency

2. Tinnitus
3. Hypotension
4. Hypokalemia
Rationale:
Furosemide is a loop diuretic; therefore, an expected effect is increased urinary frequency. Nausea is a frequent side effect, not an adverse effect. Photosensitivity is an occasional side effect. Adverse effects include tinnitus (ototoxicity), hypotension, and hypokalemia and occur as a result of sudden volume depletion.

128.) A nurse is providing instructions to an adolescent who has a history of seizures and is taking an anticonvulsant medication. Which of the following statements indicates that the client understands the instructions?
1. "I will never be able to drive a car."
2. "My anticonvulsant medication will clear up my skin."
3. "I can't drink alcohol while I am taking my medication."
4. "If I forget my morning medication, I can take two pills at bedtime."

3. "I can't drink alcohol while I am taking my medication."
Rationale:
Alcohol will lower the seizure threshold and should be avoided. Adolescents can obtain a driver's license in most states when they have been seizure free for 1 year. Anticonvulsants cause acne and oily skin; therefore a dermatologist may need to be consulted. If an anticonvulsant medication is missed, the health care provider should be notified.

150.) A client complaining of not feeling well is seen in a clinic. The client is taking several medications for the control of heart disease and hypertension. These medications include a β-blocker, digoxin (Lanoxin), and a diuretic. A tentative diagnosis of digoxin toxicity is made. Which of the following assessment data would support this diagnosis?
1. Dyspnea, edema, and palpitations
2. Chest pain, hypotension, and paresthesia
3. Double vision, loss of appetite, and nausea
4. Constipation, dry mouth, and sleep disorder

3. Double vision, loss of appetite, and nausea
Rationale:
Double vision, loss of appetite, and nausea are signs of digoxin toxicity. Additional signs of digoxin toxicity include bradycardia, difficulty reading, visual alterations such as green and yellow vision or seeing spots or halos, confusion, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased libido, and impotence.
*gastrointestinal (GI) and visual disturbances occur with digoxin toxicity*

151.) A client is being treated for acute congestive heart failure with intravenously administered bumetanide. The vital signs are as follows: blood pressure, 100/60 mm Hg; pulse, 96 beats/min; and respirations, 24 breaths/min. After the initial dose, which of the following is the priority assessment?
1. Monitoring weight loss
2. Monitoring temperature
3. Monitoring blood pressure
4. Monitoring potassium level

3. Monitoring blood pressure
Rationale:
Bumetanide is a loop diuretic. Hypotension is a common side effect associated with the use of this medication. The other options also require assessment but are not the priority.
*priority ABCs—airway, breathing, and circulation*

152.) Intravenous heparin therapy is prescribed for a client. While implementing this prescription, a nurse ensures that which of the following medications is available on the nursing unit?
1. Protamine sulfate
2. Potassium chloride
3. Phytonadione (vitamin K )
4. Aminocaproic acid (Amicar)

1. Protamine sulfate
Rationale:
The antidote to heparin is protamine sulfate; it should be readily available for use if excessive bleeding or hemorrhage occurs. Potassium chloride is administered for a potassium deficit. Vitamin K is an antidote for warfarin sodium. Aminocaproic acid is the antidote for thrombolytic therapy.

160.) Meperidine hydrochloride (Demerol) is prescribed for the client with pain. Which of the following would the nurse monitor for as a side effect of this medication?
1. Diarrhea
2. Bradycardia
3. Hypertension
4. Urinary retention

4. Urinary retention
Rationale:
Meperidine hydrochloride (Demerol) is an opioid analgesic. Side effects of this medication include respiratory depression, orthostatic hypotension, tachycardia, drowsiness and mental clouding, constipation, and urinary retention.

162.) Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is prescribed for a client with a diagnosis of psychomotor seizures. The nurse reviews the client's health history, knowing that this medication is contraindicated if which of the following disorders is present?
1. Headaches
2. Liver disease
3. Hypothyroidism
4. Diabetes mellitus

2. Liver disease
Rationale:
Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is contraindicated in liver disease, and liver function tests are routinely prescribed for baseline purposes and are monitored during therapy. It is also contraindicated if the client has a history of blood dyscrasias. It is not contraindicated in the conditions noted in the incorrect options.

164.) A client receives a prescription for methocarbamol (Robaxin), and the nurse reinforces instructions to the client regarding the medication. Which client statement would indicate a need for further instructions?
1. "My urine may turn brown or green."
2. "This medication is prescribed to help relieve my muscle spasms."
3. "If my vision becomes blurred, I don't need to be concerned about it."
4. "I need to call my doctor if I experience nasal congestion from this medication."

3. "If my vision becomes blurred, I don't need to be concerned about it."
Rationale:
The client needs to be told that the urine may turn brown, black, or green. Other adverse effects include blurred vision, nasal congestion, urticaria, and rash. The client needs to be instructed that, if these adverse effects occur, the health care provider needs to be notified. The medication is used to relieve muscle spasms.

170.) Atenolol hydrochloride (Tenormin) is prescribed for a hospitalized client. The nurse should perform which of the following as a priority action before administering the medication?
1. Listen to the client's lung sounds.
2. Check the client's blood pressure.
3. Check the recent electrolyte levels.
4. Assess the client for muscle weakness.

2. Check the client's blood pressure.
Rationale:
Atenolol hydrochloride is a beta-blocker used to treat hypertension. Therefore the priority nursing action before administration of the medication is to check the client's blood pressure. The nurse also checks the client's apical heart rate. If the systolic blood pressure is below 90 mm Hg or the apical pulse is 60 beats per minute or lower, the medication is withheld and the registered nurse and/or health care provider is notified. The nurse would check baseline renal and liver function tests. The medication may cause weakness, and the nurse would assist the client with activities if weakness occurs.
*Beta-blockers have "-lol" at the end of the medication name*

171.) A nurse is preparing to administer furosemide (Lasix) to a client with a diagnosis of heart failure. The most important laboratory test result for the nurse to check before administering this medication is:
1. Potassium level
2. Creatinine level
3. Cholesterol level
4. Blood urea nitrogen

1. Potassium level
Rationale:
Furosemide is a loop diuretic. The medication causes a decrease in the client's electrolytes, especially potassium, sodium, and chloride. Administering furosemide to a client with low electrolyte levels could precipitate ventricular dysrhythmias. Options 2 and 4 reflect renal function. The cholesterol level is unrelated to the administration of this medication.

172.) A nurse provides dietary instructions to a client who will be taking warfarin sodium (Coumadin). The nurse tells the client to avoid which food item?
1. Grapes
2. Spinach
3. Watermelon
4. Cottage cheese

2. Spinach
Rationale:
Warfarin sodium is an anticoagulant. Anticoagulant medications act by antagonizing the action of vitamin K, which is needed for clotting. When a client is taking an anticoagulant, foods high in vitamin K often are omitted from the diet. Vitamin K-rich foods include green, leafy vegetables, fish, liver, coffee, and tea.

182.) A client with angina pectoris is experiencing chest pain that radiates down the left arm. The nurse administers a sublingual nitroglycerin tablet to the client. The client's pain is unrelieved, and the nurse determines that the client needs another nitroglycerin tablet. Which of the following vital signs is most important for the nurse to check before administering the medication?
1. Temperature
2. Respirations
3. Blood pressure
4. Radial pulse rate

Rationale:
Nitroglycerin acts directly on the smooth muscle of the blood vessels, causing relaxation and dilation. As a result, hypotension can occur. The nurse would check the client's blood pressure before administering the second nitroglycerin tablet. Although the respirations and apical pulse may be checked, these vital signs are not affected as a result of this medication. The temperature also is not associated with the administration of this medication.

187.) A clinic nurse prepares to administer an MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccine to a child. How is this vaccine best administered?
1. Intramuscularly in the deltoid muscle
2. Subcutaneously in the gluteal muscle
3. Subcutaneously in the outer aspect of the upper arm
4. Intramuscularly in the anterolateral aspect of the thigh

3. Subcutaneously in the outer aspect of the upper arm
Rationale:
The MMR vaccine is administered subcutaneously in the outer aspect of the upper arm. The gluteal muscle is most often used for intramuscular injections. The MMR vaccine is not administered by the intramuscular route.

195.) A nurse is caring for a client who is taking metoprolol (Lopressor). The nurse measures the client's blood pressure (BP) and apical pulse (AP) immediately before administration. The client's BP is 122/78 mm/Hg and the AP is 58 beats/min. Based on this data, which of the following is the appropriate action?
1. Withhold the medication.
2. Notify the registered nurse immediately.
3. Administer the medication as prescribed.
4. Administer half of the prescribed medication.

1. Withhold the medication.
Rationale:
Metoprolol (Lopressor) is classified as a beta-adrenergic blocker and is used in the treatment of hypertension, angina, and myocardial infarction. Baseline nursing assessments include measurement of BP and AP immediately before administration. If the systolic BP is below 90 mm/Hg and the AP is below 60 beats/min, the nurse should withhold the medication and document this action. Although the registered nurse should be informed of the client's vital signs, it is not necessary to do so immediately. The medication should not be administered because the data is outside of the prescribed parameters for this medication. The nurse should not administer half of the medication, or alter any dosages at any point in time.

201.) A nurse is preparing to administer eardrops to an infant. The nurse plans to:
1. Pull up and back on the ear and direct the solution onto the eardrum.
2. Pull down and back on the ear and direct the solution onto the eardrum.
3. Pull down and back on the ear and direct the solution toward the wall of the canal.
4. Pull up and back on the ear lobe and direct the solution toward the wall of the canal.

3. Pull down and back on the ear and direct the solution toward the wall of the canal.
Rationale:
When administering eardrops to an infant, the nurse pulls the ear down and straight back. In the adult or a child older than 3 years, the ear is pulled up and back to straighten the auditory canal. The medication is administered by aiming it at the wall of the canal rather than directly onto the eardrum.

205.) A nurse is assisting in preparing to administer acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) to a client with an overdose of acetaminophen (Tylenol). The nurse prepares to administer the medication by:
1. Administering the medication subcutaneously in the deltoid muscle
2. Administering the medication by the intramuscular route in the gluteal muscle
3. Administering the medication by the intramuscular route, mixed in 10 mL of normal saline
4. Mixing the medication in a flavored ice drink and allowing the client to drink the medication through a straw

4. Mixing the medication in a flavored ice drink and allowing the client to drink the medication through a straw
Rationale:
Because acetylcysteine has a pervasive odor of rotten eggs, it must be disguised in a flavored ice drink. It is consumed preferably through a straw to minimize contact with the mouth. It is not administered by the intramuscular or subcutaneous route.
*Knowing that the medication is a solution that is also used for nebulization treatments will assist you to select the option that indicates an oral route*

209.) A client with multiple sclerosis is receiving diazepam (Valium), a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant. Which of the following would indicate that the client is experiencing a side effect related to this medication?
1. Headache
2. Drowsiness
3. Urinary retention
4. Increased salivation

2. Drowsiness
Rationale:
Incoordination and drowsiness are common side effects resulting from this medication. Options 1, 3, and 4 are incorrect.

210.) Dantrolene (Dantrium) is prescribed for a client with a spinal cord injury for discomfort resulting from spasticity. The nurse tells the client about the importance of follow-up and the need for which blood study?
1. Creatinine level
2. Sedimentation rate
3. Liver function studies
4. White blood cell count

3. Liver function studies
Rationale:
Dantrolene can cause liver damage, and the nurse should monitor liver function studies. Baseline liver function studies are done before therapy starts, and regular liver function studies are performed throughout therapy. Dantrolene is discontinued if no relief of spasticity is achieved in 6 weeks.

211.) A client with epilepsy is taking the prescribed dose of phenytoin (Dilantin) to control seizures. A phenytoin blood level is drawn, and the results reveal a level of 35 mcg/ml. Which of the following symptoms would be expected as a result of this laboratory result?
1. Nystagmus
2. Tachycardia
3. Slurred speech
4. No symptoms, because this is a normal therapeutic level

3. Slurred speech
Rationale:
The therapeutic phenytoin level is 10 to 20 mcg/mL. At a level higher than 20 mcg/mL, involuntary movements of the eyeballs (nystagmus) appear. At a level higher than 30 mcg/mL, ataxia and slurred speech occur.

213.) A client is admitted to the hospital with complaints of back spasms. The client states, "I have been taking two or three aspirin every 4 hours for the past week and it hasn't helped my back." Aspirin intoxication is suspected. Which of the following complaints would indicate aspirin intoxication?
1. Tinnitus
2. Constipation
3. Photosensitivity
4. Abdominal cramps

1. Tinnitus
Rationale:
Mild intoxication with acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) is called salicylism and is commonly experienced when the daily dosage is higher than 4 g. Tinnitus (ringing in the ears) is the most frequently occurring effect noted with intoxication. Hyperventilation may occur because salicylate stimulates the respiratory center. Fever may result because salicylate interferes with the metabolic pathways involved with oxygen consumption and heat production. Options 2, 3, and 4 are incorrect.

214.) A health care provider initiates carbidopa/levodopa (Sinemet) therapy for the client with Parkinson's disease. A few days after the client starts the medication, the client complains of nausea and vomiting. The nurse tells the client that:
1. Taking an antiemetic is the best measure to prevent the nausea.
2. Taking the medication with food will help to prevent the nausea.
3. This is an expected side effect of the medication and will decrease over time.
4. The nausea and vomiting will decrease when the dose of levodopa is stabilized.

2. Taking the medication with food will help to prevent the nausea.
Rationale:
If carbidopa/levodopa is causing nausea and vomiting, the nurse would tell the client that taking the medication with food will prevent the nausea. Additionally, the client should be instructed not to take the medication with a high-protein meal because the high-protein will affect absorption. Antiemetics from the phenothiazine class should not be used because they block the therapeutic action of dopamine.
*eliminate options 3 and 4 because they are comparable or alike*

222.) A nurse has administered a dose of diazepam (Valium) to a client. The nurse would take which important action before leaving the client's room?
1. Giving the client a bedpan
2. Drawing the shades or blinds closed
3. Turning down the volume on the television
4. Per agency policy, putting up the side rails on the bed

4. Per agency policy, putting up the side rails on the bed
Rationale:
Diazepam is a sedative-hypnotic with anticonvulsant and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. The nurse should institute safety measures before leaving the client's room to ensure that the client does not injure herself or himself. The most frequent side effects of this medication are dizziness, drowsiness, and lethargy. For this reason, the nurse puts the side rails up on the bed before leaving the room to prevent falls. Options 1, 2, and 3 may be helpful measures that provide a comfortable, restful environment, but option 4 is the one that provides for the client's safety needs.

223.) A client with a psychotic disorder is being treated with haloperidol (Haldol). Which of the following would indicate the presence of a toxic effect of this medication?
1. Nausea
2. Hypotension
3. Blurred vision
4. Excessive salivation

4. Excessive salivation
Rationale:
Toxic effects include extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) noted as marked drowsiness and lethargy, excessive salivation, and a fixed stare. Akathisia, acute dystonias, and tardive dyskinesia are also signs of toxicity. Hypotension, nausea, and blurred vision are occasional side effects.

224.) Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is suspected in a client who is taking chlorpromazine. Which medication would the nurse prepare in anticipation of being prescribed to treat this adverse effect related to the use of chlorpromazine?
1. Protamine sulfate
2. Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
3. Phytonadione (vitamin K)
4. Enalapril maleate (Vasotec)

2. Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
Rationale:
Bromocriptine is an antiparkinsonian prolactin inhibitor used in the treatment of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Vitamin K is the antidote for warfarin (Coumadin) overdose. Protamine sulfate is the antidote for heparin overdose. Enalapril maleate is an antihypertensive used in the treatment of hypertension.

225.) A nursing student is assigned to care for a client with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Haloperidol (Haldol) is prescribed for the client, and the nursing instructor asks the student to describe the action of the medication. Which statement by the nursing student indicates an understanding of the action of this medication?
1. It is a serotonin reuptake blocker.
2. It inhibits the breakdown of released acetylcholine.
3. It blocks the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin.
4. It blocks the binding of dopamine to the postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the brain.

4. It blocks the binding of dopamine to the postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the brain.
Rationale:
Haloperidol acts by blocking the binding of dopamine to the postsynaptic dopamine receptors in the brain. Imipramine hydrochloride (Tofranil) blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin. Donepezil hydrochloride (Aricept) inhibits the breakdown of released acetylcholine. Fluoxetine hydrochloride (Prozac) is a potent serotonin reuptake blocker.

227.) When teaching a client who is being started on imipramine hydrochloride (Tofranil), the nurse would inform the client that the desired effects of the medication may:
1. Start during the first week of administration
2. Not occur for 2 to 3 weeks of administration
3. Start during the second week of administration
4. Not occur until after a month of administration

2. Not occur for 2 to 3 weeks of administration
Rationale:
The therapeutic effects of administration of imipramine hydrochloride may not occur for 2 to 3 weeks after the antidepressant therapy has been initiated. Therefore options 1, 3, and 4 are incorrect.

231.) A client admitted to the hospital gives the nurse a bottle of clomipramine (Anafranil). The nurse notes that the medication has not been taken by the client in 2 months. What behaviors observed in the client would validate noncompliance with this medication?
1. Complaints of hunger
2. Complaints of insomnia
3. A pulse rate less than 60 beats per minute
4. Frequent handwashing with hot, soapy water

4. Frequent handwashing with hot, soapy water
Rationale:
Clomipramine is commonly used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Handwashing is a common obsessive-compulsive behavior. Weight gain is a common side effect of this medication. Tachycardia and sedation are side effects. Insomnia may occur but is seldom a side effect.

232.) A client in the mental health unit is administered haloperidol (Haldol). The nurse would check which of the following to determine medication effectiveness?
1. The client's vital signs
2. The client's nutritional intake
3. The physical safety of other unit clients
4. The client's orientation and delusional status

4. The client's orientation and delusional status
Rationale:
Haloperidol is used to treat clients exhibiting psychotic features. Therefore, to determine medication effectiveness, the nurse would check the client's orientation and delusional status. Vital signs are routine and not specific to this situation. The physical safety of other clients is not a direct assessment of this client. Monitoring nutritional intake is not related to this situation.

234.) A hospitalized client is started on phenelzine sulfate (Nardil) for the treatment of depression. At lunchtime, a tray is delivered to the client. Which food item on the tray will the nurse remove?
1. Yogurt
2. Crackers
3. Tossed salad
4. Oatmeal cookies

1. Yogurt
Rationale:
Phenelzine sulfate is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). The client should avoid taking in foods that are high in tyramine. These foods could trigger a potentially fatal hypertensive crisis. Foods to avoid include yogurt, aged cheeses, smoked or processed meats, red wines, and fruits such as avocados, raisins, or figs.

235.) A tricyclic antidepressant is administered to a client daily. The nurse plans to monitor for the common side effects of the medication and includes which of the following in the plan of care?
1. Offer hard candy or gum periodically.
2. Offer a nutritious snack between meals.
3. Monitor the blood pressure every 2 hours.
4. Review the white blood cell (WBC) count results daily.

1. Offer hard candy or gum periodically.
Rationale:
Dry mouth is a common side effect of tricyclic antidepressants. Frequent mouth rinsing with water, sucking on hard candy, and chewing gum will alleviate this common side effect. It is not necessary to monitor the blood pressure every 2 hours. In addition, it is not necessary to check the WBC daily. Weight gain is a common side effect and frequent snacks will aggravate this problem.

236.) A client is being treated for depression with amitriptyline hydrochloride. During the initial phases of treatment, the most important nursing intervention is:
1. Prescribing the client a tyramine-free diet
2. Checking the client for anticholinergic effects
3. Monitoring blood levels frequently because there is a narrow range between therapeutic and toxic blood levels of this medication
4. Getting baseline postural blood pressures before administering the medication and each time the medication is administered

4. Getting baseline postural blood pressures before administering the medication and each time the medication is administered
Rationale:
Amitriptyline hydrochloride is a tricyclic antidepressant often used to treat depression. It causes orthostatic changes and can produce hypotension and tachycardia. This can be frightening to the client and dangerous because it can result in dizziness and client falls. The client must be instructed to move slowly from a lying to a sitting to a standing position to avoid injury if these effects are experienced. The client may also experience sedation, dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, and other anticholinergic effects, but these are transient and will diminish with time.

240.) A client with Parkinson's disease has been prescribed benztropine (Cogentin). The nurse monitors for which gastrointestinal (GI) side effect of this medication?
1. Diarrhea
2. Dry mouth
3. Increased appetite
4. Hyperactive bowel sounds

2. Dry mouth
Rationale:
Common GI side effects of benztropine therapy include constipation and dry mouth. Other GI side effects include nausea and ileus. These effects are the result of the anticholinergic properties of the medication.
*Eliminate options 1 and 4 because they are comparable or alike. Recall that the medication is an anticholinergic, which causes dry mouth*

242.) A client who was started on anticonvulsant therapy with clonazepam (Klonopin) tells the nurse of increasing clumsiness and unsteadiness since starting the medication. The client is visibly upset by these manifestations and asks the nurse what to do. The nurse's response is based on the understanding that these symptoms:
1. Usually occur if the client takes the medication with food
2. Are probably the result of an interaction with another medication
3. Indicate that the client is experiencing a severe untoward reaction to the medication
4. Are worse during initial therapy and decrease or disappear with long-term use

4. Are worse during initial therapy and decrease or disappear with long-term use
Rationale:
Drowsiness, unsteadiness, and clumsiness are expected effects of the medication during early therapy. They are dose related and usually diminish or disappear altogether with continued use of the medication. It does not indicate that a severe side effect is occurring. It is also unrelated to interaction with another medication. The client is encouraged to take this medication with food to minimize gastrointestinal upset.
*Eliminate options 2 and 3 first because they are comparable or alike and because of the word "severe" in option 3*

243.) A hospitalized client is having the dosage of clonazepam (Klonopin) adjusted. The nurse should plan to:
1. Weigh the client daily.
2. Observe for ecchymosis.
3. Institute seizure precautions.
4. Monitor blood glucose levels.

3. Institute seizure precautions.
Rationale:
Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine used as an anticonvulsant. During initial therapy and during periods of dosage adjustment, the nurse should initiate seizure precautions for the client. Options 1, 2, and 4 are not associated with the use of this medication.

244.) A client has a prescription for valproic acid (Depakene) orally once daily. The nurse plans to:
1. Administer the medication with an antacid.
2. Administer the medication with a carbonated beverage.
3. Ensure that the medication is administered at the same time each day.
4. Ensure that the medication is administered 2 hours before breakfast only, when the client's stomach is empty.

3. Ensure that the medication is administered at the same time each day.
Rationale:
Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant, antimanic, and antimigraine medication. It may be administered with or without food. It should not be taken with an antacid or carbonated beverage because these products will affect medication absorption. The medication is administered at the same time each day to maintain therapeutic serum levels.
*Use general pharmacology guidelines to assist in eliminating options 1 and 2. Eliminate option 4 because of the closed-ended word "only."*

245.) A client taking carbamazepine (Tegretol) asks the nurse what to do if he misses one dose. The nurse responds that the carbamazepine should be:
1. Withheld until the next scheduled dose
2. Withheld and the health care provider is notified immediately
3. Taken as long as it is not immediately before the next dose
4. Withheld until the next scheduled dose, which should then be doubled

3. Taken as long as it is not immediately before the next dose
Rationale:
Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant that should be taken around the clock, precisely as directed. If a dose is omitted, the client should take the dose as soon as it is remembered, as long as it is not immediately before the next dose. The medication should not be double dosed. If more than one dose is omitted, the client should call the health care provider.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set