Bio 1402 Chapter 26

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4.5 billion years

The age of the Earth according to modern estimations is

prokaryotes

The oldest microfossils are of

3.5 billion years ago

Life apparently originated on Earth about

oxygen

The early Earth's reducing atmosphere probably contained all of the following except

inoculating with a few bacteria to get the process started

An experimental test of the hypothesis to explain the origin of the first organic compounds on Earth might include all of the following sequential steps (starting with A and proceeding to E) except

amino acids

Which of the following was produced in experiments on primitive Earth conditions conducted by Miller-Urey and others?

prokaryotes

All of the following were produced in experiments on primitive Earth conditions conducted by Miller-Urey and others, except for

multicellularity

The characteristics of life include all of the following except

photosynthesis

All living organisms possess the following features except

RNA

It has been discovered that enzyme-like catalysis can be carried out not only by enzymes but also by

2.5 billion years old

The oldest fossils of eukaryotes have been estimated to be

Archaebacteria

A kingdom not containing eukaryotes is

meteors and/or cosmic dust clouds carried various complex organic molecules to the Earth, which eventually evolved into what we know today.

One of the theories about the origin of life is panspermia. Panspermia proposes that

There had to be a reducing atmosphere rather than one with oxygen, otherwise formation of those molecules would have been extremely difficult.

Of the following primitive Earth conditions and chemical reactions, which one do biochemists know was important to the formation of amino acids and subsequent formation of complex carbon molecules that are common to life?

A. sexual reproduction.
B. multicellularity.
C. endosymbiosis.
D. horizontal gene transfer (HGT).
E. mutation.
F. all of the above

Diversity among the vast numbers of organisms that have arisen on Earth can be attributed to ____.

Organic molecules important to life could have been formed from a vast array of simple chemicals.

Which of the following was demonstrated by the Miller-Urey experiment?

Fungi

One day while Dr. Rogers was working in his taxonomic laboratory, a package arrived with the following label: "Beware, the contents of this package contains a eukaryotic, multicellular, nonmotile, nonphotosynthetic life form. Open with extreme caution." Dr. Rogers quickly closed the doors and windows of his laboratory and opened the package. To which kingdom of life could this life form belong?

order

In the taxonomic hierarchical system for grouping organisms, the next higher group to a family is

six kingdoms

Most biologists now recognize and use a newer system for classification of all organisms that identify

four kingdoms

Eukaryotic organisms are classified into a total of

endosymbiosis

Eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria and chloroplasts by

contain organelles

All living organisms share all of the following features in common except they

Linnaeus

The binomial system of classification of organisms was developed by

species

The biological name of an organism in the binomial system contains two parts, the genus and the

hierarchical

In that any one group fits within a more inclusive group, the biological classification systems are

class, order, family, genus, species

Of the following, the correct order from largest, most inclusive group to smallest, most specific group, is

kingdom

Of the following, the largest, most inclusive grouping in the classification scheme is

3

Living organisms can be divided into _____ domains.

mitochondria and chloroplasts

Two principal organelles of eukaryotes that share features with one another and with bacteria from which they apparently were derived are the

cyanobacteria

The group that probably gave rise to chloroplasts is the

paraphyletic

Kingdom Protista can be described as

Viridiplantae

Kingdom ____________would include green algae and land plants.

kingdom

Molecular data indicates that land plants belong in the same ________ as green algae.

endosymbiosis

The phenomenon that probably gave rise to the organelles in eukaryotes is

eukaryotes only

True multicellularity is a major characteristic of

A. bacteria.
B. protists.
C. yeasts.
D. prokaryotes.
E. none of the kingdoms.

Lacking one of the criteria to be strictly classified as living units and containing fragments of eukaryotic genomes, the viruses are included in

genus

Pinus in the scientific name Pinus ponderosa is the

Eukarya

An organism has just been located and needs to be placed into one of the domains of life. The characteristics that have been reported are multicellular and autotrophic. Based on your knowledge, which domain should this organism be placed?

segmentation evolved separately in these two groups

Annelids and arthropods were thought to be closely related in one sense because of the character of segmentation. Molecular data has recently shown that

chordates

Segmentation is thought to have evolved three times, twice in protostomes and once in deuterstomes as seen in the

class

If two organisms are in the same phylum and the same order, then they also belong to the same

Archaea and Eukarya share the characteristic of growth not inhibited by streptomycin and chloramphenicol

Which statement is an accurate description of the characteristics found in the examples below that relate to the three Domains of life?

how mitochondria and chloroplasts were derived from prokaryotic cells

A scientist is studying endosymbiosis in cells. This means she is investigating

Viruses can be placed in the Archaea Domain of life because of their similarities with these primitive organisms

Which of the following statements about viruses is not accurate?

African and South American clades

Eutherians mammals are placed in four groups, a major split occurring between

sexual reproduction

Which of the following is generally not considered essential to explain the origin of life on Earth?

ATP

In the original experiments by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey to synthesize organic molecules in an abiotic environment, which one of the following would you not expect to find in the collection flask?

O2

The apparatus in the figure was used by Stanley Miller and Harold Urey to study the origin of life on Earth. The presence of what compound in chamber B in the apparatus will prevent the accumulation of simple organic molecules in compartment A?

some of the organic compounds needed for life could be formed abiotically

Urey and Miller, using a sterile container with boiling water, a reducing atmosphere, an electric spark, and a condenser, were able to determine that

ribozymes

The first living organisms that arose on earth are believed to have evolved according to a series of steps represented by the appearance of specific molecules. Of the molecules listed, which one would most likely have appeared fourth?

class; family

The order Passeriformes includes all of the so-called perching birds. Select a choice (A-E) to make the following sentence true: The next more inclusive taxon to the Passeriformes would be the ________; the next less inclusive taxon would be the __________.

absence of nuclear envelope

Although the Archaebacteria were classified in the same group with the Bacteria, they are probably more closely related to the Eukarya. Which one of the following features do they share in common with the bacteria?

The brown algae acquired their chloroplasts by engulfing a prokaryotic cell with chloroplasts

Which one of the following statements about endosymbiosis and the origin of the eukaryotic cell is false?

The structure of the eukaryotic cell allows the physical separation of replication and transcription.

Which one of the following statements about the characteristics of eukaryotes is false?

Viruses are considered detached fragments of prokaryotic genomes

Which one of the following statements about viruses is false?

The choanoflagellates are more closely related to the fungi than to other protists

Which one of the following statements about protists is false?

Land plants are now considered a subgroup within the Chlorophyta

Which one of the following statements about origin of land plants is false?

Segmentation is an ancestral trait for the protostomes

Which one of the following statements about the classification of annelids and arthropods is false?

Molecular phylogenetics suggests that myriapods and insects may be sister clades.

Which one of the following statements about the classification of arthropods and crustaceans is false?

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