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questions derived from chapter 41 of the Hagen-Ansert DMS Textbook

The vagina runs ______ and _____ from cervix, between bladder and rectum.

anterior and caudal

Most common congenital abnormality of the female genital tract is _________ resulting in obstruction.

imperforated hymen

Accumulation of fluid in uterus

hydrometra

Accumulation of blood in uterus

hematometra

Accumulation of pus in uterus

pyometra

Vaginal tumors are rare, but the ones found are usually ________ or __________

adenocarcinoma or rhabdomyosarcoma

The upper size limit of a normal vaginal cuff is

2.1 cm

Nodular areas in vaginal cuff may be due to

postirradiation fibrosis

___________ is the most posteriror and inferior reflection of the peritoneal cavity

The Rectouterine Recess, or Pouch of Douglas

Pathologic fluid collections may be associated with ascites, or blood resulting from what 3 possibilities?

ectopic pregnancy, hemorrahagic cyst, and pus from infection

Cervix lies _________ to bladder between lower uterine segment and vaginal canal

posterior

Cervical canal extends from ________, where it joins the uterine cavity, to the _______, which projects into the vaginal vault.

internal os, external os

Cylindrical portion of the uterus which enters vagina measures ______ in length

2-4 cm

Benign cysts in the cervix, usually asymptomatic

Nabothian cysts

Cervical polyps are benign condition which arises from hyperplastic protrusion of the epithelium of _______ or ________

endocervix, ectocervix

Polyps may be ________, projecting out of cervix, or _________.

pedunculated, broad-based

Leiomyomas are also known as _________.

fibroids

___________ is an aquired condition which results in obstruction of the cervical canal.

cervical stenosis

What is the most common type of cervical cancer?

squamous cell carcinoma

_________ or ________ scanning uses a 5-7.5 MHz sector or curvilinear transducer which is covered with a probe and applied to vestibule of vagina

translabial or transperineal

Pathology of the uterus may mimic a ________ on physical exam

mass

Normal lie of uterus is usually ________ and ________.

anteverted, anteflexed

A(n) _________ uterus may be caused by pregnancy, postpartum, leiomyoma, adenomyosis, bicornuate or didelphic uterus

enlarged

A uterine tumor may be caused by _________ or ________

leiomyoma, carcinoma

Early intrauterine pregnancy, endometrial hyperplasia, incomplete abortion, trophoblastic disease, endometritis, adhesions, polyps, inflammatory disease, or endometrial carcinoma may cause ________.

thickened endometrium

Endometritis, retained products of conception, pelvic inflammatory disease, or cervical obstruction may cause _________.

endometrial fluid

Gas (abscess), IUD, calcified myomas or vessels, or retained products of conception may cause ________.

endometrial shadowing

________ are the most common gynecologic tumors, occuring in approximately 20-30% of women over 30 years old.

Leiomyomas

________ tumors are composed of spindle-shaped, smooth muscle celss arranged in whorl-like pattern.

myoma

Leiomyomas are the most comon ________, fibrosis occurs after atrophic or degenerative changes, degenerations occurs when myomas outgrow their _________

pelvic tumor, blood supply

Fibroid's location is a disruption into endometrial cavity

submucosal

Fibroid's location is within myometrium

intramural

Fibroid arises from myometrium and projects outside uterus

subserosal

Myomas are dependent on _________

estrogen

Rapid increase in myoma size, especially in postmenopausal women is suspicious for _________

neoplasm

Clinically myomas cause uterine _________ and _________ with a sensation of pelvic pressure and sometimes pain.

irregularity, enlargement

Myomas can become ________ and appear as extrauterine masses

pedunculated

________ myomas may erode into endometrial cavity and cause irregular or heavy bleeding, which may lead to anemia

submucosal

Women with _________ have several options to stop the bleeding such as hormonal suppression, endometrial ablation, UAE, HIFU.

menorrhagia

Myomas are most common cause of uterine calcifications, but the less common cause is __________ in periphery of uterus

arcuate artery calcification

Uterine calcifications can indicate underlying disease such as _______, _________, or _________

diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal failure

Calcifications have been termed "__________" and appear in arteries throughout the body

Monckeberges' arteriosclerosis

Focal adenomyosis is also referred to as _________.

adenomyoma

Adenomyosis has been described as having _________ or ________ pattern

swiss cheese, honeycomb

__________ consist of vascular plexus of arteries and veins without intervening capillary networks

Uterine arteriovenous malformations

AVM's are congenital and teratogenic and the diagnosis is critical because dilation and curettage may lead to catastrophic _________.

hemorrhaging

Sonographically, AVM's are ___________, anechoic structures seen within the pelvis which may be florid-colored, mosaic pattern

serpiginous

___________ are benign - bulky enlarged uterus without focal mass

adenomyosis

Women with adenomyosis may experience _______, ________, and ________

hypermenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhea

Uterine _________ are rare, solid tumor arising from myometrium or endometrium and have rapid growth and may resemble myomas

leiomyosarcomas

__________ is a very rare condition in children characterized by grapelike clusters of tumor mass

sarcoma botryoide

The _________ is a landmark for identification of long axis of uterus

endometrial canal

Calipers should be placed at maximum _________ to __________ diameter of outer borders

anterior, posterior

Many endometrial pathologies, such as hyperplasia, polyps and carcinoma, can cause abnormal bleeding, especially in ________ patient.

postmenopausal

____________ is a partial estrogen receptor antagonist used in postmenopausal women with history of breast cancer

tamoxifen

__________ is valuable for further evaluating abnomally thickened endometrium

sonohysterography

In premenopausal women, __________ is performed in mid-menstrual cycle, usually bw days 6 and 10.

sonohysterography

________ antibiotics are given to women with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and the women with history of mitral valve prolapse

prophylactic

___________ may have abnormal thickening of endometrium, may be a precursor of endometrial cancer

endometrial hyperplasia

Endometrial measurement, i.e., ________ without bleeding, and i.e., _______ mm with bleeding

> 5-8 mm ; < 5-8

portion of the canal of the uterine cervix that is lined with squamous epithelium

ectocervix

Small cyst within the vagina

Gartner's duct cyst

Benign invasive growth of the endometrium that may cause heavy, painful menstrual bleeding

adenomyosis

Most comon type of leimyoma which deforms the myometrium

intramural leimyoma

irregular acyclic bleeding

metrorrhea

benign condition that results from estrogen stimulation to the endometrium without the influence of progestin

endometrial hyperplasia

the ectopic occurence of nests of endometrial tissue within the myometrium is ________

adenomyosis

The most common cause of abnormal uterine bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women is

endometrial hyperplasia

intrauterine synechiae is often referred to as _______

Asherman's syndrome

The earliest stage associated with endometrial carcinoma is a ____________

thickened endometrium

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