type of cotton that grew well in the South but was difficult to process
asked Eli Whitney for help in imporoving a machine that workers were using to remove the seeds from long-staple cotton
former US president who believed that the entire future of the United States rested on agriculture
person who came to view slavery as "the most lawless and monstrous tyranny" and who ordered in his will that his slaves be freed
person who perfected a machine for removing short-staple seeds from cotton fibers
device that consisted of a cylinder filled with rows of wire teeth, the purpose of which was to remove short-staple seeds from cotton fibers
crop that some southerners thought might boost the economy when southern agriculture declined in the late 1700s
region of the country that grew most of the country's cotton
type of cotton which had long white fibers that could easily be removed from the seed
large scale farmers who owned more than 20 slaves
many people believed that the growth of the cotton trade brought this
the South's main trading partner was
the major port city of the interior United States
some people feared that trading cotton with other nations was making the South to dependent on this
corn, wheat, and sugarcane
other important crops to the southern economy
hemp and flax
as a result of the cotton boom, cash crops also included these
crop brokers who managed the trade between planters and their customers
Ohio and Mississippi Rivers
farmers who grew their crops far away from ports used these rivers to transport their goods to port
the nation's leader in the sugar industry
the South's first cash crop
this industry benefited from the building of the nation's first steam-powered sawmill in 1803
Tredegar Iron Works
owned by Joseph R. Anderson and produced boilers, bridge materials, cannons, locomotives, and steam engines
Jean Etiemme Bore
invented a new system for processing sugar which helped Louisiana become the center of the sugar industry in the US
owners of small farms and made up the majority of southern farmers
number of white southern families that owned slaves
large Southern farms owned by wealthy landowners; very few white southerns owned plantations
Politics and Economy
Although few in numbers, plantation owners (aka planters) exercised control over these
How did men and women in planter families usually divide responsibilities?
Men usually supervised the agricultural activities and slave labor; women usually ran the household, supervised domestic slaves, and handled social responsibilities
the size of a typical small farm in the South
central to southern life and culture
What was life like for southern yeomen farmers?
farms averaged about 100 acres; the few who held slaves often worked with them in the fields
How did Twain's writing differ from that of many southern writers of the time?
Twain provided a more balanced view of southern society than many other southern writers, who greatly romanticized southern culture and plantation life
What limitations did free African Americans in the South face?
racial discrimination, laws denying right to vote, travel freely, or hold certain jobs
Describe southern cities?
city governments provided public water systems, they maintained streets, and some cities provided public education
stories with a moral, to teach lessons about how to survive under slavery
emotional Christian songs that blended African and European music to express religious beliefs
a slave from Virginia who believed that God had called on him to end slavery
Nat Turner's Rebellion
In 1831, Turner led a group of slaves that set out to kill slaveholders and their families. About 60 white people were killed and about 100 slaves were killed in an attempt to put down the rebellion. Turner was executed.
What was the most common labor system on souhtern plantations?
gang labor system
Gang labor system
all workers performed the same labor at the same time
often received better food and clothing than field hands, but also worked longer hours
How did some slaves try to improve their quality of life?
worked to improve their clothing and shelter and to supplement their food rations
What purpose did folktales serve in slave communities?
parents used folktales to teach their children methods for surviving slavery
What effect did Nat Turner's Rebellion have on slavery?
White Southerners enacted stricter slave codes or laws
this was the central institution of slave life