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Exam 1

Microorganisms are involved in which procces?

deomposition of organic material, infection, o2 production, food production.

Each of the following organisms would be considered a microbe EXCEPT

mushroom

The term used to describe a disease-causing microorganism is

Pathogen

Common commercial benefits of microorganisms include synthesis of

Antibiotics and insulin

Commercial utilization of microbial products has become increasingly popular due to their environmentally friendly nature. Removal of these products from the environment typically utilizes

enzymes.

The formal system for classifying and naming organisms was developed by

Carolus Linnaeus

In the name Staphylococcus aureus, aureus is the

genus

A prokaryotic cell may possess each of the following cellular components EXCEPT

nucleus

Which of the following is NOT associated with viruses?

Organelles

Protozoan motility structures include

cilia, flagella, and pseudopods.

Viruses are not considered living organisms because they

cant reproduce by themselves

The infectious agent that causes AIDS is

virus

Which of the following is NOT a domain in the three-domain system?

Animalia

Classification of organisms into three domains is based on

cellular organization.

Archaea differ from bacteria in that archaea

Lack peptidoglycan.

Who is credited with first observing cells?

Robert Hooke

Who is credited with first observing microorganisms?

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Biogenesis refers to

development of life forms from prexisting life forms

If you were setting up an experiment to disprove spontaneous generation in a liquid medium, which of the following would be essential to the experiment?

using a sterile liquid and elimanting exposure to microorganism

The arguments supporting spontaneous generation were finally disproved by

Louis Pasteur

Regarding Louis Pasteur's experiments with the S-neck flask, which of the following statements is TRUE?

air exchange involved food source was provided, possibility of the cantamination was removed all prexisting microorganism were killed

The microbial process of converting sugars to alcohol is known as

fermentation

What is the type of bond holding hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the H2O molecule?

covalent bond

Which type of molecule contains the alcohol glycerol?

phospholipids

Which type of molecule is composed of (CH2O) units?

carbohydrate

Which type of molecule contains -NH2 groups?

Proteins

A scientist wants to perform a test that will indicate whether a nucleic acid sample is composed of RNA or DNA. Testing for the presence of which of the following is most appropriate in this situation?

uracil

Structurally, ATP is most like which type of molecule?

nucleic acid

What do genes consist of?

nucleic acids

Which molecule is composed of a chain of amino acids?

protein

Which are the primary molecules making up plasma membranes in cells?

Lipids

Radioisotopes are frequently used to label molecules in a cell. The fate of atoms and molecules in a cell can then be followed. Assume Saccharomyces cerevisiae is grown in a nutrient medium containing the radioisotope 35S. After a 48-hour incubation, the 35S would most likely be found in the S. cerevisiae's

proteins

Two glucose molecules are combined to make a maltose molecule. What is the chemical formula for maltose?

C12 H2 22 O11

What structure does light pass through after leaving the condenser in a compound light microscope?

Specimen

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

basic dye and negative stain

Which of the following places the steps of the Gram stain in the correct order?1-Alcohol-acetone
2-Crystal violet
3-Safranin
4-Iodine

2413

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

safranin and acidic dye

The purpose of a mordant in the Gram stain is to

prevent the crystal violet from leaving the cells

Which of the following places the steps in the correct sequence?
1-Staining
2-Making a smear
3-Fixing

2 3 1

A virus measures 100 nm in length. What is its length in μm?

.1 μm

Which of the following correctly traces the path of light through the compound microscope?

light source; condenser; specimen; objective lens; ocular lens

You are performing a Gram stain on gram-positive bacteria and you stop after the addition of the first dye. What is the appearance of the bacteria at this point?

purple

You are performing a Gram stain on gram-negative bacteria and you stop after the addition of the mordant. What is the appearance of the bacteria at this point?

purple

You are performing a Gram stain on gram-negative bacteria and you stop after the decolorizer step. What is the appearance of the bacteria at this point?

colorless

Assume you stain Bacillus by applying malachite green with heat and then counterstaining with safranin. Through the microscope, the green structures are

endospores

The purpose of the ocular lens is to

magnify the image form the objective lens

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding prokaryotic cells?

They lack a plasma membrane

Each of the following statements concerning the gram-positive cell wall is true EXCEPT

protects the cell in a hypertonic enviorment

Which of the following statements best describes what happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a solution containing 5 percent NaCl?

water will move out

A gram-positive bacteria suddenly acquires resistance to the antibiotic methicillin. This trait most likely occurred due to

conjugtion

By which of the following mechanisms can a cell transport a substance from a lower to a higher concentration?

active transport

Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of most bacterial plasma membranes?

cholestrol

Which of the following have a cell wall?

Fungi

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) endoplasmic reticulum  internal transport
B) Golgi complex  secretion
C) mitochondria  ATP production
D) centrosome  food storage
E) lysosome  digestive enzymes

centrosomes and food storage

Which of the following organelles most closely resembles a prokaryotic cell?

Mitochondrion

Which drawing in Figure 4.1 is a tetrad?

oo
oo

Which drawing in Figure 4.1 possesses an axial filament?

A spiral

Antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis ultimately cause bacterial cell death as a result of

osmotic lysis.

Which of the following statements about gram-negative cell walls is FALSE?

they are sensitive to penicilin

Which of the following structures is NOT found in some prokaryotic cells?

cilium

Functions of the glycocalyx include all of the following EXCEPT

binary fission

Which structure acts like an "invisibility cloak" and protects bacteria from being phagocytized?

capsule

Which diagram of a cell wall is a gram-negative cell wall?

the thicker one

Which diagram of a cell wall possesses molecules responsible for symptoms associated with infection?

gram negative

Which diagram of a cell wall has a structure that protects against osmotic lysis?

both gram positive and gram negative protect against osmotic lysis

Which diagram of a cell wall is decolorized by alcohol?

gram negative

Which diagram of a cell wall is resistant to many antibiotics (e.g., penicillin)?

gram negtive

Which diagram of a cell wall contains teichoic acids?

gram positive

Which diagram of a cell wall contains porins?

gram negative

Which of the following statements is correct about diffusion?

It is a passive process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.

In a hypertonic solution, a bacterial cell will typically

plasmoyzes

If cells are grown in media containing amino acids labeled with radioactive nitrogen (15N), most of radioactivity will be found in the cells'

DNA and proteins

A sample of milk is tested for its bacterial content in a plate count assay. A one-milliliter sample of the milk is diluted in a 1:10 dilution series. One milliliter of the third dilution tube is plated in a pour plate. After incubation, the plate has 54 colonies, indicating that the original milk sample contained

540,000

Salts and sugars work to preserve foods by creating a

hypertonic environment

Most fungi grow best at pH

5

During which growth phase will gram-positive bacteria be most susceptible to penicillin?

Log phase

Which of the following is the best definition of generation time?

the length of time needed for a cell to divide

at what pH does bacteria grow best?

7

what is facultative anaerobe in absence of O2

steady line up

what is obligated aerobe (hating)

steady down

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