Computer Applications I Operating Systems Vocab

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defragmenting

This reorganizes a disk in computer so the files are stored in contiguous sectors, speeds up data access and thus the performance of the entire computer.

system software

consists of programs that control the operations of a computer and its devices.

Mac OS

a multitasking operating system available only for computers manufactured by Apple.

UNIX

a multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s by scientists at Bell Laboratories.

Linux

a popular, free, multitasking UNIX-type operating system

Windows CE

a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on wireless communications devices and smaller computers such as handheld computers, in-vehicle devices, and Web-enabled devices

Windows Millennium Edition

an upgrade to the Windows 98 operating system that has features specifically for the home user

OS/2 Warp

IBM's GUI multitasking client operating system that supports networking, the Internet, Java, and speech recognition

OS/2 Warp Server for E-businesses

IBM's network operating system designed for all sizes of businesses.

proprietary software

privately owned software and is limited to a specific vendor or computer model.

formatting

the process of preparing a disk for reading and writing

Booting

the process of starting or restarting a computer

Plug and Play

means a computer can recognize a new device and assist in its installation by loading the necessary drivers automatically and checking for conflicts with other devices

Windows 3.x

refers to three early versions of Microsoft Windows: Windows 3.0, Windows 3.1, and Windows 3.11

Solaris™

a version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems, is a network operating system designed specifically for e-commerce applications

Spooling

a process that sends print jobs to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer

print spooler

this program intercepts print jobs from the operating system and places them in a queue.

graphical user interface

allows users to use menus and visual images such as icons, buttons, and other graphical objects to issue commands

Imagery Preview

controls how data is entered and how information displays on the screen

network

a collection of computers and devices connected together via communications media and devices such as cables, telephone lines, and modems

interrupt request

a communications line between a device and the processor

stand-alone operating system

a complete operating system that works on a desktop or notebook computer

fault-tolerant computer

a computer that continues to operate even if one of its components fails

rescue disk

a floppy disk, Zip® disk, or CD-ROM that contains system files that will start a computer

operating system

a set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all of the activities among computer resources.

device driver

a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a device

utility program

a type of system software that performs a specific task, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs

user id

a unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user of a network

buffer

an area of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred to or from an input or output device.

network operating system

an operating system that supports a network

job

A(n) _______ such as receiving data from an input device or sending information to an output device, is an operation the processor manages

zipped files

Compressed files, sometimes called __________, usually have a .zip extension.

system files

During the boot process, if the POST completes successfully, the BIOS searches for specific operating system files called __________.

Power-On Self Test (POST)

During the boot process, the BIOS executes a series of tests, collectively called the __________, to make sure the computer hardware is connected properly and operating correctly

page

the amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time

swap file

In the accompanying figure, the area of the hard disk used for virtual memory is called a(n) __________ because it swaps (exchanges) data, information, and instructions between memory and storage

restore program

In the event it is necessary to use a backup file, a(n) __________ reverses the backup process and returns the file to its original form

registry

In Windows, the __________ consists of several files that contain the system configuration information

open-source software

Linux is __________, which means its code is available to the public

Windows NT workstation

Microsoft developed __________ as a client operating system with a Windows 95 interface that could connect to a Windows NT Server.

NetWare

Novell's __________ is a widely used network operating system designed for client/server networks

Pocket PC

Pocket PC OS is a scaled-down operating system developed by Microsoft that works on a specific type of handheld computer

ghosting

Screen savers originally were developed to prevent a problem called __________ in which images could be permanently etched on a monitor's screen

multipurpose operating system

a stand-alone and network operating system

client-operating systems

Some stand-alone operating systems, called __________, also work in conjunction with a network operating system

utility suites

Some vendors offer __________ that combine several utility programs into a single package

Joyride

The __________ is a device mounted onto a vehicle's dashboard that is powered by Windows CE and can be used to obtain information, access and listen to e-mail, listen to the radio or an Audio CD, and share information

BIOS

The __________ is firmware that contains a computer's startup instructions

kernel

The __________ is the core of an operating system that manages memory and devices; maintains the computer's clock; starts applications; and assigns the computer's resources

software platform or platform

The __________ operating system was more integrated with the Internet than Windows 95

embedded operating system

The operating system on most handheld computers and small devices, called a(n) __________, resides on a ROM chip

user interface

The operating system that a computer uses sometimes is called the __________.

PalmOs

The Palm handheld computers from Palm, Inc., and Visor handheld computers from Handspring™ use an operating system called __________.

paging

The technique of swapping items between memory and storage, illustrated in the accompanying figure, often is called __________.

Disk Operating System (DOS)

The term __________ refers to several single user operating systems developed in the early 1980s for personal computers

Windows 2000 Server Family

To meet various levels of server requirements, the __________ consists of three products: Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server

Web-based utility service

To use a(n) __________, an annual fee usually is paid that allows a vendor's utility programs to be accessed and used on the Web

uncompress

When a compressed file is received, it is necessary to __________ it, or restore the file to its original form

thrashing

When an operating system spends much of its time paging, instead of executing application software, it is said to be __________.

log in

When network administrators establish user accounts, each account typically requires a user name and password to access, or __________, to the network.

fragmented

When the contents of a file are scattered across two or more noncontiguous sectors, the file is __________.

command language

When working with a command-line interface, the set of commands used to interact with the computer is called the __________.

file viewer

Windows Explorer has a viewer called __________ that displays the contents of graphics files.

Disk Defragmenter

Windows includes a disk defragmenter utility, called __________.

Dr. Watson

Windows includes the diagnostic utility, __________, which diagnoses problems as well as suggests courses of action

Windows 95

With __________, Microsoft developed a true multitasking operating system - not an operating environment like early versions of Windows.

Virtual Memory

With __________, such as that shown in the accompanying figure, the operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, to function as additional RAM.

command-line interface

With a(n) __________, keywords are typed or special keys are pressed on the keyboard to enter data and instructions.

Active Desktop

With Windows 98, users could have a(n) __________ interface, which allowed them to set up Windows so icons on the desktop and file names in Windows Explorer worked similar to Web links.

File Allocation Table (FAT)

With Windows, the formatting process defines the __________, which is a table of information that the operating system uses to locate files on the disk.

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