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. Astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics study various aspects of the physical features of nature and are therefore considered

natural sciences

Which of the following academic disciplines would most likely explore the ways in which people produce and exchange goods?

economics

Which of the following academic disciplines investigates personality and individual behavior

sociology

Pure sociology is also known as:

basic sociology

Which sociological perspective holds the view that people create their social worlds through interaction and manipulation of symbols?

interactionist

. Using sociology with the specific intent of yielding practical applications for human behavior and organizations is referred to as

applied sociology

A natural scientist would be likely to study

rock formations and compositions in the grand canyon

. In many Third World nations, the pace of social change is very rapid and there is significant hunger and starvation, unemployment, and family disruption. Individuals who live in Third World nations are likely to suffer

anomie

. The concept of anomie was introduced into sociology by

Emile Durkheim

A sociologist interviews high-salaried corporate chief executive officers (CEOs) to discover whether they feel stress in their everyday lives as a result of the pressure to produce at an unrealistic level. This sociologist is employing

verstehen

. A sociology instructor asks students to make lists of the characteristics of the best and worst possible instructors. These lists, which would be used to evaluate all instructors, are an example of a(an)

ideal type

What term do we use to describe the experience of being Black in White America; a division of an individual's identity into two or more social realities?

Double Consciousness

According to the functionalist perspective, an aspect of social life is passed on from one generation to the next if it

promotes value consensus among members of a society

Children who experience divorce in their family are more likely to experience divorce themselves when they are adults. This is an example of a

dysfunction of families

. Which sociological approach focuses on the macrolevel and would tend to view inequality in gender as central to behavior and organization?

feminist perspective

Which sociological perspective is most concerned with macrolevel analysis?

functionalism and conflict

Which sociological perspective would view sports as serving as a safety valve for both participants and spectators, allowing them to shed tension and aggressive energy in a socially acceptable way?

functionalism

. The view that sports serve as an "opiate" for social injustices and distract people from focusing on the reality of personal problems and social issues would most likely be held by

interactionist

After a sociologist reviews the literature, what is the next step in the process?

formulate a hypothesis

The statement "Women who receive welfare are less likely than other women to have babies" is an example of

casual logic

A researcher finds that those who have children at a young age are significantly more likely to have lower levels of education

correlation

. The statement "Most homeless people are not mentally ill" is an example of a(an)

...

. Sociological studies have indicated that people who are married are less likely to commit suicide than people who are divorced. In this example, marital status is a(an)

independent variable

The race of a criminal offender is associated with the frequency with which capital punishment is administered. In this example, capital punishment would be considered the

dependent variable

Individuals who have divorced parents are more likely to divorce than individuals who have parents who did not divorce. This statement is an example of a(an)

theory

. If researchers wanted to examine the opinions of people listed in a city directory, they might call every tenth or fiftieth or hundredth name listed. This would constitute a

random sample

To conduct a cross-cultural study of job discrimination against women, a sociologist interviews 75 women between the ages of 20 and 40 in an American city, and 75 women in the same age group in a Canadian city. This study would be classified as

survey

A sociologist sets up an experiment on television violence and children. She shows one set of children (group A) violent cartoons and then observes their play. She shows a second set of children (group B) non-violent cartoons and then observes their play. Which of these groups would be considered the experimental group?

group A

An operational definition is:

an explanation of an abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept

A speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables is known as a

hypothesis

. The greater likelihood of a person who is less integrated into society committing suicide illustrates

casual logic

The relationship between two variables whereby a change in one coincides with a change in the other is known as a(an)

correlation

A factor held constant to test the relative impact of the independent variable is known as a

control variable

. A study, generally in the form of an interview or a questionnaire that provides sociologists with information concerning how people think or act is known as

survey

Why was Rik Scarce, a doctoral student at Washington State University, placed in jail in 1993?

for preserving the confidentiality of his research

The number calculated by adding a series of values and then dividing by the number of values is referred to as the

mean

The midpoint or number which divides a series of values into two groups of equal numbers of values is referred to as the

median

. Which number would be considered the mode of the following: 10-10-9-9-8-8-7-7-7-6-5?

7

. Ray is an African American who is currently enrolled at a four-year university where he is studying social work. Which of the following is his achieved status? social worker, male, African american, college student

college student

A college law enforcement major watches the behavior of television police detectives with great admiration. These detectives could be considered

reference group

. A group of businesswomen meet on a monthly basis to assist one another in advancing their careers. They give each other job leads and advice, and they invite business leaders to attend their sessions to provide further assistance. This group is an example of

social networking

. Which of the following is an example of a formal organization

the general motors coroporation

. As explained in the text, the public attention given the failure of various government intelligence-gathering organizations to detect the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 illustrates which poorly functioning aspect of government bureaucracy?

...

A woman and her two children walk into a homeless shelter. They are obviously starving, dirty, and the children are crying. The shelter attendant refuses them admittance, although there is ample room in the shelter, because the mother does not have the proper identification card. This is an example of

trained incapacity

. Which one of the following would be an example of a negative consequence of bureaucratization?

...

An ascribed status is a social position

"assigned" to a person by society without regard for the person's unique talents or characteristics

. A master status is a

Status that dominates others and thereby determines a person general position within society

. Role exit is defined as

the process of disengagement from a role that is central to ones's self identity and the re-establishment of an identity in a new role

. Any group or category to which people feel they belong is called a(an)

in group

Which term is used by sociologists when speaking of any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior?

reference group

Which of the following terms is used to refer to organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs?

social institutions

Bureaucratization is

...

. According to the classical theory of formal organizations, workers are motivated almost entirely by

economic rewards

In a society organized around mechanical solidarity, which of the following tasks would you most likely engage in? prepare food, build homes, make clothing

all of the above

society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services is called a(an)

industrial

The analysis of how the "definition of the situation" can mold the thinking and personality of the individual is associated with the

interactionist

. Which sociological perspective emphasizes that social roles contribute to a society's stability by enabling members to anticipate the behavior of others and to pattern their own actions accordingly?

functionalism

. Which sociological perspective would emphasize the role of reference groups in setting and enforcing standards of conduct and belief?

conflict

. Which sociological perspective might observe the division of labor among the staff members in a hospital emergency room and focus on how the allocation of responsibilities affects their relationships with one another?

interactionist

. Daniel Bell views postindustrial societies as consensual, because he believes that postindustrial societies are characterized by interest groups concerned with such national issues as health, education, and the environment working for the common good. Bell's view represents which sociological perspective?

functionalist

3 Modern Theories

Structural Functionalism (Macro)
Conflict (Macro)
Interactionist (Micro)

Structural Functionalism

CONSENSUS theory
Social change occurs slowly
Organism Metaphor- Society is like an organism
Manifest Functions- stated purpose
Latent Function- unintended functions
Dysfunctions- element or process of an institution that disrupts stability

Conflict Perspective

Dominance of some groups by others
Change occurs rapidly
Fighting over scarce resources
Marxist view- Focus on social class

interactionist

3 basic premises
-people act toward things on the basis of meanings that things are given. (symbolism)
-People decide the significance of these things
we act on things based on how we define the situation

scientific method

define
review
hypothesis
research design
conclusion
Future research

Quantitative research

Macro level
Conflict and Functionalism
Goals
1. Identify patterns
2. Make predictions
3. Test Social Theory
Methods: Survey, content analysis, experiments, secondary data

Qualitative Research

Micro Level
Interactionist
Goals:
1. Interpret cultural and historical significance
2. Give Voice
3. Advance new theory
Methods: Field research/participant observations, historical-comparative research, textural analysis

Theories

Help us develop research questions that we use the methods to answer

operational definition

abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to measure the concept

operationalization

developing a set of questions that measure a concept

Validity

degree to which a scale or measure truly reflects the phenomena under study

Reliability

refers to the extent to which a measure provides consistent results

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