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Vocab terms from Chapter 1

management

attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources

planning

management function concerned with defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and resources needed to attain them

organizing

management function concerned with assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, and allocating resources to departments

leading

management function that involves the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve the organization's goals

controlling

management function concerned with monitoring employees' activities, keeping the organization on track toward its goals, and making corrections as needed

organization

social entity that is goal-directed and deliberately structured

effectiveness

extent to which the organization achieves a stated goal

efficiency

use of minimal resources-raw materials, money, and people-to produce a desired volume of output

performance

organization's ability to attain its goals by using resources in an efficient and effective manner

first line

managers who are at the first or second management level and are directly responsible for the production of goods and services

middle manager

managers who work at the mid-levels of the organization and are responsible for major departments

role

set of expectations for one's behavior

diversity

ethnically and racially generational

learning organization

organizational climate that values experimentation and risk taking, applies current technology, tolerates mistakes and failure, and rewards nontraditional thinking and the sharing of knowledge

collaborative relationships

staying connected to employees and customers

human skills

ability to work with and through other people and to work effectively as a group member

empowerment

unleashing the power and creativity of employees by giving them the freedom, resources, information, and skills to make decisions and perform effectively

e-business

work an organization does by using electronic linkages with customers, partners, suppliers, employees, or other key consitituents

e-commerce

business exchanges or transactions that occur electronically

business to consumer e-commerce

sell products and services to consumers over the internet

business to business e-commerce

electronic transactions between organizations

supply chain management

managing the sequence of suppliers and purchasers, covering all stages of processing from obtaining raw materials to distributing finished goods to consumers

consumer to consumer

internet-based business acts as an intermediary between and among consumers

peer to peer file sharing

swapping music, movies, software, and other files

enterprise resource planning

systems that weave together all of a company's major busineess functions, such as order processing, product design, purchasing inventory, manufacturing, distribution, human resources, receipt of payments, and forcasting of future demand

knowledge management

efforts to systematically find, organize, and make available a company's intellectual capital and to foster a culture of continuous learning and knowledge sharing so that a company's activities build on what is already known

customer relationship management

systems that collect and manage large amounts of data about customers and make them available to employees, enabling better decision making and superior customer service

outsourcing

contracting out selected functions or activities to to other organizations that can do the work more cost-efficiently

social forces

aspects of a culture that guide and influence relationships among people

social contract

unwritten, common rules and perceptions about relationships among people and between employees and management

political forces

influence of political and legal institutions on people and organizations

economic forces

availability, production, and distribution of resources in a society

classical perspective

emerged during 19th and early 20th centuries that emphasized a rational, scientific approach to the study of management and sought to make organizations efficient operating machines

scientific management

precise procedures developed after careful study of individual situations

administrative principles

design and functioning of the organization as a whole

human resources perspective

combines prescriptions for design of job tasks with theories of motivation

behavioral sciences approach

applies social science in an organizational context drawing from economics, psychology, and other disciplines

contingency

one thing depends on other things, and for organizations to be effective, there must be a "goodness of fit" between their structure and the conditions in their external environment

total quality management

focus on managing the total organization to deliver quality to customers

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