Biology Test #1

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Chapters 1-5 and 7

Evolution

descent with modification; core theme of biology

Biology

study of life

Atom

smallest unit of an element, consists of protons and neutrons and electrons

Biological Organization

the hierarchy of life
biosphere - ecosystem - community - population - organism - all the way down to molecule

Emergent Properties

new properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid; blueprint for building organisms

7 Properties of Life

a

Life is organized into 3 domains

bacteria, eukareya, archaea

Natural Selection

process in which organisms with inherited characteristics are more likely to live and reproduce

Two Approaches to the Process of Science

Discovery Science and Hypothesis-Based Science

Control in an experiement

factor that remains the same

Variable in an experiment

factor that changes

Goal of Science vs. Goal of Technology

Technology: apply scientific knowledge for specific purpose
Science: understand natural phenomena

Matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

Elements

substances that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinal chemical means

Three most common elements

Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen

Trace Elements

elements that are essential, but only in minute quantities

Atomic Number

number of protons in each atom of a particular element

Atomic Mass

approximate total mass of an atom (sum of protons and neutrons)

Isotopes

variant form of atom; isotope of an atom has the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

Part of atom that influences chemical behavior

electrons

Ionic Bonds

when two ions with opposite charges attract each other and are held together

Covalent Bonds

two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons

Nonpolar Covalent

covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms with similar electronegativity

Polar Covalent

covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity; shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive

Hydrogen Bonds

type of weak chemical bond formed when partially positive hydrogen atom participating in polar covalent bond is attracted to negative atom participating in polar covalent bond

Solute

substance that is dissolved in a solution (ex. salt)

Solvent

dissolving agent in a solution (ex. water)

Solution

liquid consisting of homogenous mixture of two or more substances

Buffers

substances that minimize changes in pH

Organic Compound

carbon-based molecule

Polymer

long molecule consisting of building blocks (monomers) strung together

Four Organic Compounds

lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins

Enzyme

speeds up chemical reactions in a cell; missing a necessary enzyme could lead to lactose-intolerance

Main fuel of a cell

monosaccharide

Carbohydrate

consists of monosaccharides, disaccharides and monosaccharides

What breaks apart a polymer

hydrolysis through the process of adding water to break bonds in the cell

Main function of lipid

energy storage

Which monomers compose protein

amino acids (20)

What determines function of a protein

general shape

R. Hooke

examined a piece of bark and compared these structures to "little rooms," cells became the term

A. Leeuwenhoek

examined numerous subjects from human blood and sperm and pond water; first to observe and describe bacteria

Cell Theory

all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells (discovered through microorgansims)

Magnification

increase in the apparent size of an object

Resolution

measure of the clarity of an image

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

study detailed architecture of cell surfaces

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

study details of internal cell structure

Mycoplasmas

smallest cell in human body

Muscle and Nerve Cells

largest cells in human body

Advantage of Cells being small

a

Prokaryotic Cell

cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus; found in bacteria and archaea

Eukaryotic Cell

cell that has membrane-enclosed nucleus; all organisms except bacteria and archaea are eukaryotic

Antibiotics

target bacteria

Permeable

having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to go through

Ribosomes

composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins, synthesize proteins according to directions from DNA

Proteins

made from free ribosomes, function within cytoplasm; inserted into membranes and packaged into organelles, exported from cell

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

synthesizes lipids, processes toxins and stores and releases calcium ions; lacks attached ribosomes

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

manufactures membranes, attached ribosomes produce proteins

Golgi Apparatus

modify, store and ship products of the endoplasmic reticulum

Lysosomes

contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest cell's food and waste

Vacuoles

helps the plant cell grow by absorbing water and enlarging

Mitochondria

carry out cellular respiration and use energy in food to make ATP

Endosymbiosis

process by which mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells

Cytoskeleton

network of protein fibers in cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell

Cilia

short cellular appendage specialized for locomotion

Flagella

long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion

Nucleus

contains DNA that carries cells hereditary blueprint and directs its activities

Nucleolus

assembles ribosomes

Chloroplasts

present in plants, convert solar energy to chemical energy in sugars

Hydrogen Bonds

make water molecules cohesive, creating surface tension and allowing water to move

Compound

substance consisting of two or more different elements

Electron Shells

energy level representing distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom

Electronegativity

an atoms attraction for shared electrons

Surface Tension

how difficult it is to break or stretch the surface of a liquid

Isomer

compounds with the same formula but different structures

Hydrophilic

water-loving and soluble in water

Monomer

building blocks of polymers

Dehydration Reaction

removes a molecule of water from monomers, creating polymers

Hydrolysis

cells break bonds between monomers by adding water to them

Monosaccharide

carbohydrate monomer, simplest carbohydrate, building block of di/polysaccharides

Disaccharide

two monosaccharides formed through dehydration reaction

Polysaccharide

polymers of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration reactions

Starch

storage polysaccharide in plants

Glycogen

animals store excess sugar in this glucose polysaccharide

Cellulose

most abundant organic compound on earth, helps to form walls of plant cells

Chitin

used by insects to build exoskeleton

Lipid

hydrophobic, includes fats, phospholipids, ans steroids

Phospholipid

major component of cell membranes

Amino Acids

organic molecule, serve as monomer of proteins

Cytoplasm

region between the nucleus and plasma membrane

Nucleoid

location of DNA of prokaryotic cell

Peroxisome

organelle that is involved in metabolic functions

Fluid Mosaic

description of membrane structure, cellular membrane has diverse proteins in small strands

Selective Permeability

membranes allow some substances to cross more easily than others

Passive Transport

diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane

Osmosis

diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane

Hypotonic

solution with a solute concentration lower than that of a cell

Hypertonic

solution with a higher solute concentration

Facilitated Diffusion

passage of a substance through a specific transport protein across a biological membrane down its concentration gradient

Active Transport

movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration gradient, aided by transport proteins and requiring energy

Exocytosis

movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane

Endocytosis

cellular uptake of molecules

Phagocytosis

cellular "eating"; a type of endocytosis when cell engulfs other cells

Pinocytosis

cellular "drinking"; type of endocytosis when cell takes in fluid

Receptor-meditated endocytosis

movement of specific molecules into a cell by inward budding of membranous vesicles

Cellular Respiration

harvesting of energy from food molecules

Endergonic Reactions

energy-requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more potential energy than the reactants

Asexual Reproduction

creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent

Chromosomes

structures that contain of an organism's DNA

Sexual Reproduction

creation of offspring by the fusion of two haploid cells, forming a diploid zygote

Cell Division

reproduction of cells

Binary Fission

prokaryotic reproduction by dividing in half (type of cell division)

Chromatin

combination of DNA and protein molecules

Sister Chromatids

one of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell

Centromere

region of duplicated chromosome where two sister chromatids join and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis

Cell Cycle

ordered sequence of events that extends from from time a eukaryotic cell is first formed to the division of a cell

Interphase

period in eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is actually not dividing

Mitotic Phase

part of the cell cycle when the nucleus is divided, its chromosomes are distributed to the daughter nuclei, and cytoplasm divided, producing two daughter cells

Mitosis

division of a single cell nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei

Cytokinesis

division of cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells

Prophase

first stage of mitosis

Metaphase

third stage of mitosis

Anaphase

fourth stage of mitosis

Telophase

fifth and final stage of mitosis

Centrosomes

material in cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives rise to microtubules

Cleavage Furrow

first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; shallow groove in cell

Cell Plate

double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, new cell wall forms during cytokinesis

Growth Factor

protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide

Density-Dependent Inhibition

arrest of cell division

Anchorage Dependence

requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface

Tumor

abnormal mass of cells that forms within otherwise normal tissue

Benign Tumor

abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body

Malignant Tumor

abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of body

Metastasis

spread of cancer cells beyond their original state

Carcinomas

cancer that originates in the coverings of the body

Sarcoma

cancer of the supportive tissues, such as bone, cartilage, muscle

Leukemia

type of cancer of the blood-forming tissues, excessive production of white blood cells

Lymphoma

cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells

Homologous Chromosomes

two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell

Diploid Cell

organism sexually reproducing - cell containing two homologous sets of chromosomes, one from each parent (2n)

Sex Chromosomes

chromosome that determines sex of a baby

Autosome

chromosome not directly involved in determining sex of an organism

Gamete

sex cell; haploid sperm or egg cell

Haploid Cell

cell containing a single set of chromosomes (n)

Fertilization

union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of the egg cell

Zygote

fertilized egg, which is diploid, results from union of sperm and egg cells

Meiosis

in sexually reproducing organism, division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughter nuclei

Tetrad

paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids

Crossing Over

exchange of segments between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis

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