Government in America: Chapter 14 Vocab

Created by cmbapt 

Upgrade to
remove ads

budget

A policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures).

deficit

An excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues.

expenditures

Government spending of revenues. Major areas of federal spending are social services and national defense.

revenues

The financial resources of the government. The individual income tax and Social Security tax are two major sources of the federal government's revenue.

income tax

Shares of individual wages and corporate revenues collected by the government. The Sixteenth Amendment explicitly authorized Congress to levy a tax on income.

tax expenditures

Revenue losses that result from special exemptions, exclusions, or deductions on federal tax law.

Social Security Act

A 1935 law passed during the Great Depression that was intended to provide a minimal level of sustenance to older Americans and thus save them from poverty.

Medicare

A program added to the Social Security system in 1965 that provides hospitalization insurance for the elderly and permits older Americans to purchase inexpensive coverage for doctor fees and other health expenses.

incrementalism

A description of the budget process where the best predictor of this year's budget is last year's budget, plus a little bit more (an increment). According to Aaron Wildavsk, "Most of the budget is a product of previous decisions."

uncontrollable expenditures

Expenditures that are determined not by a fixed amount of money appropriated by Congress but by how many eligible beneficiaries there are for a program or by previous obligations of the government.

entitlements

Policies for which Congress has obligated itself to pay X level of benefits to Y number of recipients. Social Security benefits are an example.

House Ways and Means Committee

The House of Representatives committee that, along with the Senate Finance Committee, writes the tax codes, subject to the approval of Congress as a whole.

Senate Finance Committee

The Senate committee that, along with the House Ways and Means committee, writes the tax codes, subject to the approval of Congress as a whole.

Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act

act designed to reform the congressional budgetary process; supporters hoped it would make congress less dependent on president's budget and better able to set and meet its own budgetary goals

Congressional Budget Office

Advises Congress on the probable consequences of its decisions, forecasts revenues, and is a counterweight to the president's Office of Management and Budget.

budget resolution

A resolution binding Congress to a total expenditure level, supposedly the bottom line of all federal spending for all programs.

reconciliation

a congressional process through which program authorizations are revised to achieve required savings. It usually also includes tax or other revenue adjustments

authorization bill

An act of Congress that establishes, continues, or changes a discretionary government program or an entitlement. It specifies program goals and maximum expenditures for discretionary programs.

appropriations bill

An act of Congress that actually funds programs within limits established by authorization bills. Appropriations usually cover one year.

continuing resolutions

When Congress cannot reach agreement and pass appropriations bills, these resolutions allow agencies to spend at the level of the previous year.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set