What was the first Western music to be preserved in written notation rather than passed down by oral tradition?
By turning to the various soloists and sections during a performance, what does the conductor convey, not only to the orchestra, but also to the audience?
essential lines and themes of the music
A---- is a type of music for orchestra that is divided into several pieces that each possesses its own tempo and mood.
A short, distinctive musical figure that can stand by itself, and often unifies entire compositions is a:
What term do musicians use to describe when the volume of sound increases (gets louder)?
A---- occurs when two or more pitches sound simultaneously.
What term describes performers plucking the strings of their instruments instead of using a bow to generate sound?
. Identify the term that is synonymous with "tone poem."
symphonic poem -tries to capture in music the emotions of a play
A----- is a large, independent section of music in a major instrumental composition
. The term, referring to the organization of time in music, gives shape to the pitches of the melody
What is the term for the even pulse that divides the passing of musical time into equal segments
When beats are gathered into regular groups, what is the result?
The downbeat is:
What is the name for the last beat in any given measure?
What is the term for an upbeat that occurs at the very beginning of a composition?
What is the term for the emphasis or stress placed on a musical tone or chord?
Which term describes placing an accent on a weak beat or between the beats?
Which term means the speed at which beats progress?
What is the English word that means to slow the tempo of the music?
Simple series of pitches arranged to form a cohesive, pleasing musical line
relative position, high or low, of a sound
The---- is a horizontal grid onto which are put the symbols of musical notation.
What symbol indicates the range used for lower-sounding instruments and male voices?
Which symbol raises a note to the next higher neighboring tone?
What is the name for the central pitch around which melodies gravitate and on which they generally end?
The arrangement of pitches within the octave that ascends and descends according to a fixed pattern is known as:
What is the term describing the change in tonal center from one key to another?
Which scale adds five more notes to the typical Western scale, adding color and richness to a melody?
. A---- is a dependent idea within a melody, much like a dependent clause within a grammatical sentence.
The element that adds depth and dimension to music as well as providing support and accompaniment to the melody is
What is a unit of two or more pitches that sound at the same time?
A---- is the basic chord in music; it consists of three pitches arranged in a specific manner.
Identify the term that describes the distance between different notes.
On which note of the scale is the dominant triad always built?
Which chord tends to move to the tonic at the end of musical phrases, helping create the strong effect of a cadence?
What is the term for a purposeful movement of chords?
A broken triad, one in which the notes are played in direct succession rather than simultaneously, is known as:
Chords that are----- consist of pitches that sound agreeable and stable.
The term that refers to the level of volume at which sounds are produced is:
The musical term for loud is
The musical term that tells the musician to sing or play softly is
What is the word that indicates a loud, sudden attack on a particular note or chord?
[true/false] Musicians traditionally use Italian words for musical dynamics because the terms were first used by composers working in Italy
Which term refers to the distinct tone quality of sound?
Which term is synonymous with "color"?
Be able to identify the correct order of voice ranges, from highest to lowest.
Which voice category has a range that falls between the high and low male voice categories?
Identify the term that describes a harp sliding up or down the scale very rapidly
What is the name of the musical element that refers to the density and disposition of musical lines within a composition?
Which term consists of a single melody without accompaniment?
The musical texture involving two or more simultaneously sounding lines is called
------describes the harmonious opposition of two or more independent musical lines.
What is the texture in which all the voices, or lines, move to new pitches at roughly the same time?
. The literal definition of this term is "same sounding."
-----provides a foil to familiar musical material, providing variety, novelty, excitement, and even musical conflict.
Which musical form consists of one melody played for successive stanzas of text?
Musicians use the diagram A A 1 A 2 A 3 etc. to indicate the structure of which musical form?
theme and variation
What is the form that alters each successive repetition of the melody?
theme and variation
The letters ABA are typically used to indicate the sections of a composition in ---- form
Which musical form, illustrated by the pattern ABACA, consists of a musical refrain that alternates with contrasting music?
---- is the distinctive sound produced by the interaction of the elements of music, creating a special manner of presentation.
Identify the style period that falls between the Middle Ages and the Baroque.
The concerto grosso and fugue are two of the principal instrumental genres of the---- period.
During which style period was the madrigal a principal genre of composition?
Early and middle baroque
What began in the monasteries of Western Europe around the year 1000?
[true/false] Scholars have identified the composer of the chant All the Ends of the Earth ( Viderunt omnes ) as Pope Gregory the Great (540?-604)
false - no one knows who wrote it
Which church administrator decreed that certain chants should be sung on certain days of the liturgical year?
pope gregory the great
Given to the church as a tithe while still a child, this composer of Gregorian chant later founded a convent and gave advice to popes as well as kings.
Hildegard of Bingen
The most important composer of the fourteenth century, this individual was also a gifted poet whose works are considered equivalent to those of his English counterpart, Geoffrey Chaucer.
The Ordinary of the Mass describes:
chants with unvarying texts that were sung virtually everyday -set by machaut first
Which composer was associated with the illustrious Court of Burgundy?
The belief that people are something more than a mere conduit for gifts descending from heaven, that they have the capacity to create many things good and beautiful, indeed, the ability to shape their own world. Can be creative sole purpose isn't just to worship gods
. Which composition belongs to the genre of Renaissance motet?
Which term designates a composition sung by a choir without instrumental accompaniment?
Although this composer was born in northern Europe, he spent most of his early career in Italy, where he excelled in writing motets.
The Council of Trent, influenced by the music of -----decided to retain polyphony in the Mass.
When adult male singers use their head voice to produce a high, soprano-like sound, the result is called:
. A ------- is a distinctive motive that is sung or played in turn by each voice or instrumental line.
point of imitation
When music artfully depicts, or even mimics, the text, the result is called:
What are the qualities that charaterize Baroque art?
The idea that different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions of the listener is known as:
doctrine of affections
What was the single most important genre of music to emerge in the Baroque era?
What is the name given to the new kind of solo singing that emerged during the early Baroque era?
The most common basso continuo group was the:
harpsichord and low string instrument, such as viola da gamba
Which term describes the sharp, abrupt dynamic contrasts found in the music of the Baroque era?
What is the numerical shorthand in music that tells the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the written bass note?
The dramatic text that composers set to music in an opera, oratorio, or cantata is called:
. Musically heightened speech that relates the action or dramatic narrative to the audience is called:
What type of vocal style is characterized by clear meter, regular rhythms, and long vocal melismas (one vowel spread out over many notes)?
Orfeo is important in Western music because:
frist true opera
Destitute and desperate to provide for her four children, -------\ earned money by dedicating cantatas to prominent members of the nobility, who paid a fee for the honor.
Which term is synonymous with "Ground bass"?
In the opera Dido and Aeneas, who dies of a broken heart?
The manner of composing for instruments that exploits the strengths, special abilities, and color of a particular instrument or voice while avoiding its weaknesses is known as:
Which instrument dominated the sound of the Baroque orchestra and generally led to the rising popularity of instrumental music?
[true/false] The Baroque orchestra normally included the entire woodwind family of instruments: flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons.
false - clarinet was introduced in the classical era
Who was the autocratic musician who was in charge of music at the court of Louis XIV of France?
Jean Baptiste Lully
Which genre of composition consists of two sections; the first is set in a slow duple meter with stately dotted rhythms, while the second is in a fast triple meter in an imitative style?
During the Baroque period, a multi-movement work for solo instrument, or instrument with keyboard accompaniment was called a:
What is the term for a Baroque sonata that requires three instrumentalists?
What is the term adopted by composers to enumerate and identify their compositions?
A bass line that moves at a moderate pace, mostly in equal note values, and often stepwise up or down the scale is known as:
walking the bass
What form is typically used in the first and third movements of a concerto grosso?
Which musician was engaged to teach music for a girl's orphanage, the Hospice of Mercy, and wrote many solo concertos for the all-female orchestra?
How did the style of late Baroque music change from those that characterized the early part of the period?
late= instrumental as important as vocal for first time / early = homophonic
----- learned to compose music by studying the works of Corelli, Vivaldi, Pachelbel, and Palestrina. He also learned to play the organ, in part by emulating others, and soon became the most renowned organ virtuoso in Germany.
The theme in a fugue is called the:
A note, usually in the bass, that is sustained (or repeated) for a period of time while harmonies change around it is called:
Which composer spent the greatest part of his career as the Cantor of the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig, working there between 1723 and 1750?
Identify the trait that best describes the church cantata.
Solo singer and small accompanying orchestra - sacred - multimovement
. A spiritual melody or religious folksong of the Lutheran Church is known as:
The Well-Tempered Clavier consists of two sets of twenty-four:
preludes and fugues
Which composer was born and trained in Germany, established his reputation in Italy, and made his career in England?
Which composer provided music for English royal entertainments and ceremonies as well as operas and oratorios for public performances?
What is the typical form of movements in the dance suite?
. Water Music is an example of the:
This genre, intended for entertainment as well as spiritual edification, had a libretto based on stories from the Bible.
Why did Handel find the oratorio a financially viable alternative to composing operas?
Do away with castrati and pre modanas - no sets/costumes - faihfulness of puritans(untapped)
Which composition is an example of a da capo aria?
"rejoice greatly, Oh daughter of Zion"
Handel conducted the premiere performance of his oratorio Messiah in
Where is Handel buried?
west minister abbey
The years between 1750 - 1820 is known as the
Who were important Enlightenment philosophers?
Voltaire and Rousseau
What differed in opera buffa from opera seria?
Championed middle-class values and made use of every day characters
What innovation made the piano such a popular instrument?
Pianoforte - more than one dynamic level
What is the typical texture of Classic music?
Lessening of counter point ...melodic qualities? Makes for a lighter melody - pleasent harmony
Phrases that are dependent upon each other to produce a complete musical idea are called - -- - and-------
What term describes the technique of playing the notes of a chord in succession rather than simultaneously, providing a continuous stream of sound?
. What about 18th century Vienna attracted musicians?
so much musical patronage
As a child this composer's pleasing voice brought him to the attention of local church officials; he was sent to Vienna where he was a choirboy at the cathedral of St. Stephen for 10 years until his voice broke.
One of the most influential creators of the mature Classical style, he composed 104 symphonies and was the first to use theme and variations form for a movement in that genre. Because of his innovations, he is known as the "father of the string quartet."
On his first visit to Vienna at the age of six, this composer and his sister played for the empress of the Hapsburg Empire, Maria Theresa. A three-year tour of northern Europe followed during which time he visited many important cities. The time in London was especially profitable for his music growth, and his first two symphonies performed there when he was eight.
t/f Mozart found the system of aristocratic patronage irritating, and after several unpleasant scenes with his patron, the archbishop of Salzburg, he cut himself free and moved to Vienna, determined to make a living as a freelance musician.
t/f The peak years of mozarts success were between 1785 and 1787 when he composed many of his greatest works, had numerous pupils, and played several concerts a week.
Which form was the only one that actually came into being in the Classical period?
The minuet was most commonly in what form?
A Little Night Music is an example of what genre?
A sonata is typically a three-movement composition performed by:
a solo piano or a group of instruments with piano accompaniment
"Sonata-allegro form" is:
form of the first movement - between mulitmovment genre sonata and single-mvement genre allegro - most complex and satisfying of music forms - originated during classical period -
The section in sonata-allegro form that presents the main thematic material of the movement is the:
[true/false] In sonata-allegro form, the second theme is typically in a contrasting mood with the first.
Which section of sonata-allegro form frequently consists of unstable harmonies, plentiful use of melodic and harmonic sequence, and fugato?
Which theme is generally rewritten in the recapitulation to prevent modulation to the dominant tonal area?
Which form is often based on folk songs, popular tunes, or patriotic melodies?
themes and variations
Which musical element is most often altered in theme and variation form?
Who was the first composer to include a theme and variations form as a movement in a symphony?
This composition was first performed in London in 1792, and the audience so enjoyed the theme and variations movement that they cheered, demanding that the orchestra play it again as an encore.
Which composition is famous for its sudden, unexpected fortissimo chord?
[true/false] Rondo form is one of the oldest musical forms and can be traced back to the Middle Ages.
What form consists of a refrain alternating with contrasting material?
Which movement of a symphony is normally characterized by a fast tempo, use of sonata-allegro form, and has a serious and substantive mood?
The third movement of a Classic period symphony is nearly always:
minuet and trio
The dramatic increase in public concerts increased the popularity of this musical genre.
Of the three major composers of the Classical period, who composed 104 symphonies?
. Which instrument was added to the orchestra during the Classical period?
Which genre is primarily intended for a small audience or just for the performers themselves?
The number and form of the movements in a Classical string quartet are identical to those of the Classical:
A scherzo typically appeared in the---- movement of a symphony or string quartet.
What is the literal meaning of the Italian word "scherzo"?
Which instrument is most closely associated with the genre of the sonata?
Which genre uses double exposition form?
Which section of the concerto's first movement is given over to a fantasy-like improvisation?
How does the soloist signal the end of the cadenza?
with a trill
Which vocal genres were important during the Classical period?
Opera = secular, ordinary = sacred
What is the term for German comic opera?
In Don Giovanni, the character of Leporello is who/what?
Which adjective best describes the diminished chord?
What type of chord accompanies the death of the Commandant?
In what way is Don Giovanni critical of the aristocracy?
Because he seduces and murders his way across Europe - mocks public law